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posed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Senators classe consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies Vacancies, how happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. No

person shall be a Senator, who shall not Qualification of have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall Vice President

preside. be President of the Senate, but shall bave no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, Officers of Senate and also a President pro tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Trial of impeach impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall



Judgment in im. peachments.

Effect of.

be convicted without the concurrence of two. thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.


Elections, wben and how held.

The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

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SECTION V. Elections, how Each house shall be the judge of the elections, judged.

returns, and qualifications of its own members, Quorum. and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum

to do business; but a smaller number may ad

journ from day to day, and may be authorized Absent members to compel the attendance of absent members,

in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly

behavior, and with the concurrence of twoExpulsion. thirds, expel a member.




Each house shall keep a journal of its proceed- Journals to

kept and publishings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the Yeas and days. members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither house, during the session of Congress, Adjournments, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.


The Senators and Representatives shall re. Compensation. ceive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases except treason, felony and breach of the peace, Privilegen. be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place. No Senator or Representative shall, during Members not ap

pointed to office. the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a Officers of govern member of either house during his continuance members in office.


cannot be


Revenue bills.

Bills to be presented to the President.



his veto.

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before

it become a law, be presented to the President His powers over of the United States ; if he approve he shall

sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that house in which it shall have

originated, who shall enter the objections at Proceedings large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider

it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be recon. sidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by


and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered

on the journal of each house respectively. If Bills to be laws if any bill shall not be returned by the President ten days.

within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the approved by the concurrence of the Senate and House of Repre.

sentatives may be necessary (except on a ques. tion of adjournment) shall be presented to the

Jeas and


returned in

Joint orders or resolutions to be

President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.


gress to lay taxes




The Congress shall have power to lay and Power of Con collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay –pay debts. the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but General welfaro all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform Duties uniform. throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United Borrow money. States;

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, Naturalization. and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies Bankruptcy. throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, Coin money. and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and mes. weights and measures;

To provide for the punishment of counter- Counterf-iting. feiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

To establish post offices and post roads;

To promote the progress of science and use- Promote arts and ful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;


Post roads.


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