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PUBLIC EXPENDITURES, COMMITTEE ON. When appointed, and number of members of.-Rule 74, p. 119. Duties of.--Rule 85, p. 123.

PUBLIC LANDS, COMMITTEE ON THE.

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When appointed, and number of members of.—Rule 74, p. 119.
One delegate to be added to.-Rule 162, p. 142.
Duties of.-Rule 80, p. 122.
Allowed a clerk.-Journal, 2, 37, p. 760.

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PUBLIC PRINTING AND PUBLIC PRINTER.

(See PRINTING, PUBLIC, and PRINTING, COMMITTEE ON.)

QUESTIONS.

6

“The Speaker shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting."-Rule 3, p. 103.

Questions shall be distinctly put in this form, to wit: "As many as are of opinion that (as the question may be) say Aye;'" and, after the affirmative voice is expressed, “ As many as are of the contrary opinion, say 'No.'-Rule 4, p. 103.

(See also TELLERS and YEAS AND NAYS.)

"While the Speaker is putting any question, none shall walk out of or across the House, nor entertain private discourse.”Rule 65,

p. 117.

(See DIVISION OF QUESTIONS.) (See MOTIONS.)

In case of an equal division on a question, the question shall be lost.-Rule 7, p. 104. (See also TIE VOTE.)

QUORUM.

"The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States”— Const., 1, 2, 5—and "a majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.”—Const., 1, 5, 8.

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In view of the foregoing clauses of the Constitution, it was decided, during the Thirty-seventh Congress, to which several of the States bad failed to send Representatives, that a majority of the members chosen constituted a quorum to do business.-Journal, 1, 37, p. 117.

When, from counting the House on a division, it appears that there is not a quorum, the matter continues exactly in the state in which it was before the division.- Manual, p. 86.

A quorum of the House for the purpose of choosing the President shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States.—Const., 2, 1, 16.

Tellers may be ordered upon motion, seconded by at least onefifth of a quorum of the members.-Rule 4, p. 103.

The Speaker each day on the meeting of the House, “and on the appearance of a quorum, shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read.”Rule 1, p. 103. And it is a very common practice, when no quorum is present upon the Speaker taking the chair, for him to entertain a motion for a call of the House before causing the Journal to be read.—Journal, 1, 35, p. 840.

Where less than a quorum is present, a motion to take a recess is not in order; and no motion is in order except for a call or to adjourn.-Journals, 1, 29, p. 356; 2, 29, p. 343; 2, 32, p. 388.

"Whenever the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union, or the Committee of the Whole House, finds itself without a quorum, the chairman sball cause the roll of the House to be called, and thereupon the committee sball rise, and the chairman shall report the names of the absentees to the House, which sball be entered on the Journal.”—Rule 126, p. 133. And as soon (after rising for such purpose) as a quorum is ascertained to be present, the House must return into Committee.Journal, 2, 27, p. 292.

“Whenever, during business, it is observed that a quorum is not present, any member may call for the House to be counted, and, being found deficient, business is suspended.”—Manual, p. 59; also

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p. 66,

Where the roll-call discloses the absence of a quorum, the Chair cannot go outside of the record in deciding as to the presence of a quorum.-Journal, 1, 44, p. 1078.

(See also CALLS OF THE HOUSE.)

RAILWAYS AND CANALS, COMMITTEE ON.

When appointed, and number of members of.-Rule 74, p. 119. Duties of.-Rule 94, p. 125.

READING OF PAPERS.

66 Where papers are laid before the House or referred to a committee, every member has a right to have them once read at the table before he can be compelled to vote on them,” but it is a great though common error to suppose that he has a right, toties quoties, to have acts, journals, accounts, or papers on the table read independently of the will of the House. The delay and interruption which this might be made to produce evince the impossibility of the existence of such a right. There is, indeed, so manifest a propriety of permitting every member to have as much information as possible on every question on which he is to vote, that when he desires the reading, if it be seen that it is really for information and not for delay, the Speaker directs it to be read without putting a question, if no one objects; but if objected to, a question must be put.—2 Hats., 117, 118.

It is equally an error to suppose that any member has a right, without a question put, to lay a book or paper on the table, or ave it read, on suggesting that it contains matter infringing on the privileges of the House.-Ib.

For the same reason, a member has not a right to read a paper in his place, if it be objected to, without leave of the House. But this rigor is never exercised but where there is an intentional or gross abuse of the time and patience of the House-Manual, p. 72– and this applies to the reading of papers on a motion to refer them.Journal, 1, 34, p. 1146. And so in regard to any proposi. tion submitted for a vote of the House; but, it being a right derived from the rules, he may at any time (when a motion to suspend the rules is in order) be deprived of it by a suspension of the rulesJournals, 1, 32, p. 1116; 3, 44, p. 618; 2, 35, p. 572; 2, 38, pp. 397, 398; 1, 44, p. 1331-even after the main question is ordered to be put.-Journal, 3, 34, p. 386.

“When the reading of a paper is called for, and the same is objected to by any member, it shall be determined by a vote of the House."-Rule 141, p. 139.

[The rule above recited is not construed to apply to the single reading of a paper or proposition upon which the House may be called upon to give a vote, or to the several regular readings of a bill, but to cases where a paper has been once read, or a bill has received its regular reading and another is called for, and also where a member desires the reading of a paper having relation to the subject before the House. But it does not apply to the case of an amendment which a member, by leave, bas given notice of his intention at a future time to offer.-Journal, 1, 31, p. 1149.

The reading of a report relating to a pending proposition cannot be called for after the previous question is seconded, as it would be in the nature of debate.--Journal, 1, 23, p. 726.

RECEDE, MOTION TO,

The motion to recede takes precedence of the motions to insist and ask a conference and to adhere.- Manual, p. 82. [And even though the previous question may be pending on either of the last motions, the motion to recede may be entertained, because if it prevails, the disagreement between the houses is removed and the bill is passed.] A vote to recede from a disagreement to an amendment is not equivalent to an agreement.-Journal, 1, 20, pp. 695, 697. (But, in making a motion that the House recede from its disagreement, there should be coupled with it “and that the House agree to the same."]

(See also AMENDMENTS BETWEEN THE TWO HOUSES and Con. FERENCE COMMITTEES.)

RECEPTION.

(See CONSIDERATION.)

RECESS.

Where it is convenient that the business of the House be sus. pended for a short time, as for a conference presently to be held, &c., it adjourns during pleasure.- Manual, p. 92. [The practice of the House in regard to the privileged character of the motion for a recess has varied in different Congresses, but of late years it has been beld to be a privileged question-see Journals, 1, 36, pp. 753, 759; 2, 37, pp. 718, 719—and the latter practice is manifestly that

RAILWAYS AND CANALS, COMMITTEE ON.

When appointed, and number of members of.-Rule 74, p. 119.

p Duties of.-Rule 94, p. 125.

READING OF PAPERS.

66 Where papers are laid before the House or referred to a committee, every member has a right to have them once read at the table before he can be compelled to vote on them," but it is a great though common error to suppose that he has a right, toties quoties, to have acts, journals, accounts, or papers on the table read independently of the will of the House. The delay and interruption which this might be made to produce evince the impossibility of the existence of such a right. There is, indeed, so manifest a propriety of permitting every member to have as much information as possible on every question on which he is to vote, that when he de. sires the reading, if it be seen that it is really for information and not for delay, the Speaker directs it to be read without putting a question, if no one objects; but if objected to, a question must be put.--2 Hats., 117, 118.

It is equally an error to suppose that any member has a right, without a question put, to lay a book or paper on the table, or have it read, on suggesting that it contains matter infringing on the privileges of the House.-Ib.

For the same reason, a member has not a right to read a paper in his place, if it be objected to, without leave of the House. But this rigor is never exercised but where there is an intentional or gross abuse of the time and patience of the House-Manual, p. 72– and this applies to the reading of papers on a motion to refer them.-Journal, 1, 34, p. 1146. And so in regard to any proposi. tion submitted for a vote of the House; but, it being a right derived from the rules, he may at any time (when a motion to suspend the rules is in order) be deprived of it by a suspension of the rules— Journals, 1, 32, p. 1116; 3, 44, p. 618; 2, 35, p. 572; 2, 38, pp. 397, 398; 1, 44, p. 1331—even after the main question is ordered to be put.-Journal, 3, 34, p. 386.

“When the reading of a paper is called for, and the same is objected to by any member, it shall be determined by a vote of the House."--Rule 141, p. 139.

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