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all bills and joint resolutions; opposite which are noted, as they occur, all proceedings of the House thereon ; also all proceedings of the Senate as they are reported to the House.

He places appropriate indorsements upon all papers presented in the House, and, after entering the same in books kept for the purpose, sends to the Government Printing-Office all such as are ordered to be printed, and to the appropriate committee such as are referred without printing.

He engrosses upon paper all bills, joint resolutions, and resolutions of the House, and amendments of the House to Senate bills and joint resolutions which pass the House of Representatives, certifying the date of the passage of the same at the foot thereof.

He enrolls upon parchment all House bills and joint resolutions which have passed both houses, certifying upon the back that the same originated in the House, and then delivers them to the Committee on Enrolled Bills.

He journalizes all petitions and other papers handed to him under the 131st Rule, and having indorsed them appropriately, takes them to the rooms of the proper committees, and there enters them in the committee book. He also keeps what is called the "Petition Book," in which is entered, alphabetically, each petition as presented, and the further action of the House thereon as it occurs.

He keeps what is called the “Newspaper Book,” in which are entered the accounts of members for newspapers, and orders from the publishers such newspapers and periodicals as may be directed.

He contracts for and furnishes to members all books voted to them by the House, and keeps the accounts of the members for the same.

He distributes to members, governors, State legislatures, &c., all public documents (other than extra numbers) required by law, rule, or resolution to be distributed.

He purchases, keeps, and distributes the stationery required for the use of the House. (See STATIONERY.)

He keeps the library of the House, in which are kept copies of all documents printed by order of either house.

CLERKS OF COMMITTEES.

“No committee shall be permitted to employ a clerk at the public expense without first obtaining leave of the House for that purpose.”—Rule 73, p. 119. [Such leave is usually granted to a portion of the committees, for a part or the whole of the session, as they may deem the service necessary, the Committee on Accounts usually arranging the list of what are known as “temporary committee clerks;" and six of the committees have permanent clerks, viz: of Claims, by resolution of February 18, 1843; of Ways and Means, by resolution of February 18, 1856; on Public Lands, by resolution of May 27, 1862; on Appropriations, by resolution of December 12, 1865; on War-Claims, by resolution of January 19, 1874; and on Invalid Pensions, by resolution of June 18, 1874.)

COINAGE, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES, COMMITTEE ON.

When appointed, of what number, and duties of.-Rule 148, p. 140.

COMMERCE, COMMITTEE ON.

When appointed, of what number, and duties of.-Rules 74 and 79, pp. 119, 122.

COMMIT, MOTION TO.

When it may be received; precedence with reference to other motions; not to be repeated same day and stage of bill.-Rule 42,

p. 111.

Where different committees are proposed.—Rule 43, p. 111.

A motion to commit may be amended by the addition of instructions. Also by striking out one committee and inserting another.Journals, passim.

A division of the question is not in order on a motion to commit with instructions, or on the different branches of instructions.Journals, 1, 17, p. 507; 1, 31, pp. 1395, 1397 ; 1, 32, p. 611.

"Upon the second reading of a bill, the Speaker shall state it as ready for commitment.”Rule 118, p. 131.

[On a motion to commit, the whole question is open to debate.]

After the previous question is ordered, if no motion to postpone is pending, the House is brought first “to a direct vote on the

motion to commit, iť such motion shall have been made.”— Rule 132, p. 135.

“Motions and reports may be committed at the pleasure of the House."-Rule 47, p. 112.

COMMITTEES.

Thirty-three standing cominittees shall be appointed at the commencement of each Congress, viz: Of Elections, of Ways and Means, on Appropriations, on Banking and Currency, of Claims, on Commerce, on the Public Lands, on the Post-Olice and PostRoads, for the District of Columbia, on the Judiciary, on WarClaims, on Public Expenditures, on Private Land Claims, on Manufactures, on Agriculture, on Indian Affairs, on Military Affairs, on the Militia, on Naval Affairs, on Foreign Affairs, on the Territories, on Revolutionary Pensions, on Invalid Pensions, on Railways and Canals, on Mines and Mining, on Education and La bor, on the Revision of the Laws, on Public Buildings and Grounds, on Patentsto consist of eleven members each ; on the Pacific Railroad—to consist of thirteen members ; on Coinage, Weights, and Measures-to consist of seven members; of Accounts and on Mileage—to consist of five members each.-Rule 74, p. 119.

By Rule 162, p. 142, the Speaker is directed to appoint from among the Delegates an additional member of the Committee on Territories, an additional member of the Committee on Indian Affairs, an additional member of the Committee on Mines and Mining, and an additional member of the Committee on Public Lands.

There shall be a Joint Committee on Enrolled Bills, to consist of two members of each house (Joint Rule 7, p. 145); there shall be a Joint Committee on the Library of Congress, to consist of three members of each house (Joint Rule 20, p. 145); there shall be a Joint Committee on Public Printing, to consist of three members of each house.—R. S., Sec. 3756. The rules do not designate for what period these joint committees shall be appointed; but the practice is for the Speaker to appoint them at the commencement of each Congress.]

There shall be appointed at the commencement of the first session in each Congress eight additional standing committees, whose duties shall continue until the first session of the ensuing Congress, viz: On Expenditures in the Department of State, on Expenditures in

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the Treasury Department, on Expenditures in the War Department, on Expenditures in the Post Office Department, on Expenditures in the Navy Department, on Expenditures in the Interior Department, on Expenditures in the Department of Justice, on Expenditures on the Public Buildings, to consist of five members each.-Rule 102, p. 126.

For duties of the several committees, see under their respective names.

How appointed.-Rule 67, p. 118.

The mode of selecting committees by ballot as therein named of late years has not been resorted to, but the practice has been for the House to adopt an order "that the Speaker be authorized to appoint the regular standing committees." And after adopting such order, it is usual for the House to adjourn over for two or three days, to enable him to make the appointments. In several instances where there have been three sessions, the committees have not been announced until the commencement of the second session. Committees on Elections, Enrolled Bills, and Accounts are the only exceptions. Usually one or more select committees are appointed. See Journals 40th, 41st, 42d Congresses, passim.]

Before a return be made, a menuber elected may be named of a committee, and is to every extent a member, except that he cannot vote until he is sworn.- Manual, p. 56. [While this is the law, it has not been a common practice in the House to appoint a member on a committee until he has been sworn, although there have been instances of the kind.]

“The first-named member of any committee shall be the chairman; and in bis absence, or being excused by the House, the next named member, and so on, as often as the case shall happen, unless the committee, by a majority of their number, elect a chairman." Rule 68, p. 118.

"Any member may excuse himself from serving on any committee at the time of his appointment, if he is then a member of two other committees." —Rule 69, p. 119. [And under the practice, it is sufficient for him to offer such an excuse at any subsequent period of the session; usually a request to be excused from service on a coinmittee is granted nem. con., even though the member be on only one other committee.]

“ It shall be the duty of a committee to meet on the call of any

two of its members, if the chairman be absent, or decline to appoint such meeting.”—Rule 70, p. 119.

“ No committee shall sit during the sitting of the House without special leave."Rule 72, p. 119. And “so soon as the House sits, and a committee is notified of it, the chairman is in duty bound to rise instantly, and the members, to attend the service of the House."

- Manual, p. 61. [But upon the statement to the House by a member of a committee (usually the chairman) that it is important to the dispatch of public business that they should have such leave, it is usually granted, especially near the close of the session. It is quite common, of late years, to grant this privilege to select committees, when organized.]

“Committees may be appointed to sit during the recess by ad. journment, but not by prorogation. Neither house can continue any portion of itself in any parliamentary function beyond the end of the session without the consent of the other two branches. When done, it is by a bill constituting them commissioners for the particular purpose.”—Manual, p. 93. [This has been construed (and, in view of the distinction which exists between a 6 session" of Parliament and of Congress, very properly so) not to restrain a committee of the House, with the leave of the House, from sitting during the recess between a first and second session of Congress.]-Seo Journal, 1, 32, p. 1119.

Clerks of Committees.-Rule 73, p. 119.
(See also CLERKS OF COMMITTEES.)
Precedence of different motions to refer.-Rule 43, p. 111.

Where more than one standing committee is proposed, the last one proposed is first voted upon, as an amendment to strike out and insert.]

“A committee meet when and where they please, if the House has not ordered time and place for them; but they can only act when together, and not by separate consultation and consent, nothing being the report of a committee but what has been agreed to in committee actually assembled.”—Manual, p. 69.

“A majority of the committee constitutes a quorum for business.”—Manual, p. 69. But it is not necessary that the committee shall be full when a paper is acted upon.-Journal, 1, 34, p. 1143. Nor is it even necessary that every member shall have been notified

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