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Inferior courts.

Declare war and make captures.

Raise armies.


Rules and articles of war.

Call out militia.

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme

Court; Pracies, &c. To define and punish piracies and felonies

committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and dis.. ciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of

the United States, reserving to the States reOfficers of militia. spectively, the appointment of the officers, and

the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;—and

Organize and gov. ein militia.

Exclusive legislasion over seat of government.

And over forts, arsenals, docks, c.

To make all laws which shall be necessary to mako general

laws to carry pow and proper for carrying into execution the fore- ers into effect. going powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.


of slaves allowed til

post facto .

The migration or importation of such persons Importation as any of the States now existing shall think 1808. proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus Habeas corpus. shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall Attainder and ex be passed.

No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, Direct taxes. unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles ex. No exportation ported from any State.

No preference shall be given by any regula- Commerce tion of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another : nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, Money, how drawn

from the treasury. but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the


be tween the States.

No nobility.

To be publisbed. receipts and expenditures of all public money

shall be published from time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding any office

of profit or trust under them, shall, without the Foreign presents consent of the Congress, accept of any present,

emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign State.

and titles.


Powers denied to the States.

Other powers denied to States.

No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States;: and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

No State shall, without the consent of Con: gress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

Further denial of powers to Stateg.



United States.

The executive power shall be vested in a Pres. President of tho ident of the United States of America.

He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: Each State shall appoint, in such manner as Electors, how ap

pointed. the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective Electors to meet States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of sident and Vice whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of Their votes count

ed in Congress. the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of eleciors appointed; and if there be more than one



Vico President.

who have such a majority, and have an equal Representatives to number of votes, then the House of Representa

tives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list

the said House sball :n like manner choose the Potes by States. President. But in choosing the President, the

votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.*

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the

same throughout the United States. Qualifications No person except a natural-born citizen, or a

citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligble to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to

Election and meeting of electors.



* This clause of the Constitution has been aminded. See twelfth article of the amendments, page 31

Removal, death, &c., of President.

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