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port, from time to time, whether any, and what, retrenchment can be made in the expenditures of the several departments, without detriment to the public service; whether any, and what, abuses at any time exist in the failure to enforce the payment of moneys which may be due to the United States from public defaulters or others; and to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the several departments and the accountability of their officers.—March 30, 1816.

It shall be the duty of the several committees on public expend. itures to inquire whether any offices belonging to the branches or Departments, respectively, concerning whose expenditures it is their duty to inquire, have become useless or unnecessary; and to report, from time to time, on the expediency of modifying or abolishing the same; also, to examine into the pay and emoluments of all offices under the laws of the United States; and to report, from time to time, such a reduction or increase thereof as a just economy and the public service may require.-February 19, 1817.

OF COMMITTEES OF THE WHOLE.

104. The House may at any time, by a vote of a majority of the members present, suspend the rules and orders for the purpose of going into the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union; and also for providing for the discharge of the Committee of the Whole House, and the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union-January 25, 1848; from the further consideration of any bill referred to it, after acting without debate on all amendments pending and that may be offered.-March 11, 1844.

[Prior to March 16, 1860, this rule formed a part of Rule 145.] 105. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker shall leave his chair, and a chairman, to preside in committee, shall be appointed by the Speaker.—April 7, 1789.

[Originally the rule failed to prescribe the mode of appointing a chairman of the Committee of the Whole. He was appointed by the House by nomination and vote thereon. That practice became very inconvenient; and on the 13th November, 1794, the rule was amended by adding "by the Speaker.” By Rule 9, the chairman has power, in case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or lobby, to order the same to be cleared.]

106. Whenever the Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union, or the Committee of the Whole House, finds itself without a quorum, the chairman shall cause the roll of the House to be called, and thereupon the committee shall rise, and the chairman sball report the name of the absentees to the House, which shall be entered on the journal.-- December 18, 1847.

107. Upon bills committed to a Committee of the Whole House, the bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read and debated by clauses, leaving the preamble to be last considered; the body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined; but all amendments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper, as the same shall be agreed to by the committee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be subject to be debated and amended by clauses, before a question to engross it be taken.- April 17, 1789.

[This refers to bills in manuscript and bills from the Senate. At that time it was not the practice to print bills as at present.] 108. All amendments made to an original motion in committee shall be incorporated with the motion, and so reported.—April 7, 1789.

109. All amendments made to a report committed to a Committee of the Whole House shall be noted, and reported, as in the case of bills.—April 7, 1789.

110. No motion or proposition for a tax or charge upon the people shall be discussed the day on which it is made or offered, and every such proposition shall receive its first discussion in a Commit

a tee of the Whole House.—November 13, 1794.

111. No sum or quantum of tax or duty, voted by a Committee of the Whole House, shall be increased in the House until the motion or proposition for such increase shall be first discussed and voted in a Committee of the Whole House; and so in respect to the time of its continuance.—November 13, 1794.

112. All proceedings touching appropriations of money and all bills making appropriations of money or property, or requiring such appropriations to be made, or authorizing payments out of appropriations already made, shall be first discussed in a Committee of the Whole House.—January 13, 1874.

[This rule as adopted November 13, 1794, was as follows: "All proceedings, touching appropriations of money, shall be first moved and discussed in a Com

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mittee of the Whole House.” The word “ moved was struck out December 17, 1805. The rule as above given was taken from Barclay's Digest and differs from the rule as reported in the Journal. (See H. R. Journal, 1, 43, p. 234.) The entry referred to in the Journal is evidently an error, as reference to the Congressional Record fully shows.]

113. The rules of proceedings in the House shall be observed in a Committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the times of speaking—April 7, 1789; but no member shall speak twice to any question until every member choosing to speak shall have spoken.- December 18, 1805.

114. In Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union, the bills shall be taken up and disposed of in their order on the calendar; but when objection is made to the consideration of a bill, a majority of the committee shall decide, without debate, whether it shall be taken up and disposed of or laid aside: provided, that general appropriation bills, and, in time of war, bills for raising men or money, and bills concerning a treaty of peace, shall be preferred to all other bills, at the discretion of the committee; and, when demanded by any member, the question shall first be put in regard to them-July 27, 1848; and all debate on special orders shall be confined strictly to the measure under consideration.March 16, 1860.

[The last clause of this rule was adopted for the purpose of reforming to some extent the practice which had previously prevailed in Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union of indulging in general debate, without regard to the measure under consideration.]

OF BILLS.

115. Every bill shall be introduced on the report of a committee, or by motion for leave. In the latter case, at least one day's notice shall be given of the motion in the House, or by filing a memoran. dum thereof with the Clerk, and having it entered on the journal; and the motion shall be made, and the bill introduced, if leave is given, when resolutions are called for; such motion, or the bill when introduced, may be committed.—April 7, 1789; September 15, 1837; and March 2, 1838. But the Speaker shall not entertain a motion for leave to introduce a bill or joint resolution for the establishment or change of post-routes, and all propositions relating thereto shall be referred, under the rule, like petitions and other papers, to the appropriate committee.- May 5, 1870.

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[In the early stages of the government, before the institution of standing committees, it was the common practice to introduce bills, on motion for leave, by individual members ; the bills were then referred to a select committee to examine and report upon. The practice, however, of introducing bills by members on leave gradually grew into disuse as standing committees were created, and, for nearly thirty years, no case occurs on the journals. Within a few years past the practice has been revived and has now become very common, but it is, nevertheless, a very inconvenient one, and does not facilitate busi

Previous to the 13th March, 1822, so strict was the House upon the introduction of bills that standing committees had to obtain leave, in every case, to report by bill. On that day the 71st rule was adopted.]

[See Rule 130 as to bills on leave when resolutions are in order. ] 116. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House previous to its passage ; and bills shall be dispatched in order as they were introduced, unless where the House shall direct otherwise; but no bill shall be twice read on the same day, without special order of the House.--April 7, 1789.

117. The first reading of a bill shall be for information, and, if opposition be made to it, the question will be, “Shall this bill be rejected !" If no opposition be made, or if the question to reject be negatived, the bill shall go to its second reading without a question.-April 7, 1789.

[If no opposition be made to a bill, or if the question to reject be negatived, and the bill receives its second reading forth with (as is usual), it is always understood that it is by“special order of the House.” In the rapid and hurried manner in which bills are now reported and acted upon, the motion is seldom or never made, nor is the question put, “Shall the bill be now read a second time ?” The Speaker takes it for granted that the motion has been made and allowed, and announces the second reading as soon as the first reading is completed.] 118. Upon the second reading of a bill, the Speaker shall state it as ready for commitment or engrossment; and, if committed, then a question shall be, whether to a select or standing committee, or to a Committee of the Whole House; if to a Committee of the Whole House, the House shall determine on what day-November 13, 1794; if no motion be made to commit, the question shall be stated on its engrossment; and if it be not ordered to be engrossed on the day

; of its being reported, it shall be placed on the general file on the Speaker's table, to be taken up in order.- September 14, 1837. But if the bill be ordered to be engrossed, the House shall appoint the day when it shall be read the third time.—November 13, 1794.

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119. General appropriation bills shall be in order in preference to any other bills of a public nature, unless otherwise ordered by a majority of the House.— September 14, 1837.

And the House may, at any time, by a vote of a majority of the members present, make any of the general appropriation bills a special order.—March 16, 1860.

[This latter provision was inserted in the 145th rule, March 16, 1860, but in the rearrangement under the resolution of that date it was deemed more appropriate to annex it to this rule.] 120. No appropriation shall be reported in such general appropriation bills, or be in order as an amendment thereto, for any expenditure not previously authorized by law-September 14, 1837– unless in continuation of appropriations for such public works and objects as are already in progress. Nor shall any provision in any such bill or amendment thereto changing existing law be in order except such as, being germane to the subject-matter of the bill, shall retrench expenditures.—March 13, 1838, and January 17, 1876.

121. Upon the engrossment of any bill making appropriations of money for works of internal improvement of any kind or description, it shall be in the power of any member to call for a division of the question, so as to take a separate vote of the House upon each item of improvement or appropriation contained in said bill, or upon such items separately and others collectively, as the members making the call may specify; and if one-fifth of the members present second said call, it shall be the duty of the Speaker to make such divisions of the question, and put them to vote accordingly.-February 26, 1846.

122. The bills from the Court of Claims shall, on being laid before the House, be read a first and second time, committed to a Committee of the Whole House, and, together with the accompanying reports, printed.-March 16, 1860.

123. A motion to strike out the enacting words of a bill shall have precedence of a motion to amend; and, if carried, shall be considered equivalent to its rejection.—March 13, 1822. Whenever a bill is reported from a Committee of the Wbole, with a recommendation to strike out the enacting words, and such recommendation is dis. agreed to by the House, the bill shall stand recommitted to the said committee without further action by the House.—March 16, 1860. But before the question of concurrence is submitted, it is in order to

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