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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

А

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXVIII

VETCH to ZYMOTIC DISEASES

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1911

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company,

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXVIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. Go.

{
{Webster

, John.

A. C. S.

A. D. Mo.

A. E. S.

A. F. B.

A. F. B.

A. F. A.

{Wallace

, Sir William.

A. F. L.

A. F. P.

ALFRED BRADLEY GOUGH, M.A., Ph.D.

Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. English Lector in the Westphalia, Treaty ol.

University of Kiel, 1896-1905.
ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE,

See the biographical article: SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES.
ANSON DANIEL MORSE, M.A., LL.D.

Emeritus Professor of History at Amherst College, Mass. Professor at Amherst Whig Party.

College, 1877–1908.
ARTHUR EVERETT SAIPLEY, M.A., D. Sc., F.R.S.

Wasp (in part);
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University.
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.

Weevil (in part).
ALDRED FARRER BARKER, M.Sc.

S Wool, Worsted and Woollen
Professor of Textile Industries at Bradford Technical College.

1 Manufactures. ARCHIBALD FRANK BECKE.

Captain, Royal Field Artillery. Author of Introduction lo the History of Tactics, Waterloo Campaign.

1740-1905; &c.
A. F. HUTCHISON, M.A.

Sometime Rector of the High School, Stirling.
ARTHUR FRANCIS LEACH, M.A.

Barrister-at-law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. Waynflete, William;
Formerly Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls William of Wykeham.

College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools of the Reformation; &c.
ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University Walsingham, Sir Francis;
of London. Assistant-Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Wishart, George;
Author of England under the Protector Somersel; Life of Thomas Cranmer; Henry Wolsey, Cardinal.

VIII.; &c.
AGNES MARY CLERKE.
See the biographical article: CLERKE, AGNES M.

Vulture; Wagtail; Warbler;

Waxwing; Weaver-bird; ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Wheatear; Whitethroat;
See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

Wigeon; Woodcock;
Woodpecker; Wren;

Wryneck; Zosterops.
ARTHUR PHILEMON COLEMAN, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.

Professor of Geology in the University of Toronto. Geologist, Burcau of Mincs, Yukon Territory.

Toronto, 1893-1910. Author of Reports of the Bureau of Mines of Onlario.
ARTHUR SYMONS.

Villiers de l'Isle-Adam,
See the biographical article: SYMONS, ARTHUR.

Comte de.
ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B.

Formerly Assistant-Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of
Ornament in European Silks Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Lace and Egyptian Weaving: Archaeology and Ark.

Textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum; &c.
ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Weber's Law;
Lecturer in the Universit of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Wolff, Christ (in part).

Author of Man's Place in ihe Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
ALOYS VON ORELLI.

Formerly Professor of Law in the University of Zürich. Author of Das Slaalsrecht Veto,
der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft.

"A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. M. C.

{Zodiac.

A. N.

A. P. C.

A. Sy.

{

A. 8. C.

A. S. P.-P.

A. v.0.

[ocr errors]

A. W. H.*

A. W. Hu.

A. W.R.

B. E. S.

B. H.-S.

C. EL.

C. F. A.

{

C. F. K.

C. H. Ha.

C. H. T.

C. K. W.

ARTHUR William HOLLAND.

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. {Widukind; Witan.
Rev. ARTHUR WOLLASTON HUTTON.

Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside, London. Formerly Librarian of the National
Liberal Club. Author of Life of Cardinal Manning. Editor of Newman's Lives of the

Wiseman, Cardinal
English Sainis; &c.
ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B.

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Lows Waste.

of England.
BENJAMIN ELI SMITH, A.M.

Editor of the Century Dictionary. Formerly Instructor in Mathematics at Amherst Whitney, William Dwight.
College, Mass., and in Psychology at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

Editor of the Century Cyclopaedia of Names; Century Allas; &c.
B. HECKSTALL-SMITH.

Associate of the Institute of Naval Architects. Secretary of the International Yachting.
Yacht Racing Union; Secretary of the Yacht Racing Association. Yachting

Editor of The Field.
SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College,
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa { Yuc-chi.
Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German

East Africa, 1900-1904.
CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London (Royal {Wilderness: Granl's Campaign

Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor.
CHARLES FRANCIS KEARY, M.A.

Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Vikings in Western Christendom; Viking.

Norway and the Norwegions; &c.
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., Ph.D.

Victor III. and IV. (Popes);
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University. New York City. Member
of the American Historical Association.

Visconti (Family).
CRAWFORD HOWELL Toy, A.M., LL.D.

Wisdom, Book of; .
See the biographical article: Tor, CRAWFORD HOWELL.

Wisdom Literature.
CHARLES KINGSLEY WEBSTER, M.A.

Vienna, Congress of.
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Whewell Scholar, 1907.

Warwick, Richard Beau

champ, Earl of;

Warwick, Richard Neville,
CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc., F.S.A.
Assistant-Secretary to the Board of Education, Author of Life of Henry V. Editor Whittington, Richard;

Earl of;
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London.

Worcester, John Tiptoft,

Earl of;

York, Richard, Duke of.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of
Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Ceography: Zemarchus.
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
CHARLES WALKER ROBINSOX, C.B., D.C.L.

Major-General (retired). Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, Vitoria.
1890-1892. Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895-

1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c.
DAVID BINNING MONRO, M.A., LITT.D.
See the biographical article: MONRO, DAVID BINNING.

Victoria, Tommasso L. da;
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising. The Classical Concerto, The Wagner: Biography (in part)
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

and Critical Appreciation;

Weber: Critical Appreciation.
DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow
of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis. 1899 and 1903;

Xanthus;
Ephesus, 1904-1905: Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens,

Zeitun.
1897-1900. Director, Crelan Exploration Fund, 1899.
DAVID HANNAY.
Formerly British Vice Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal

Villeneuve;
Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c

Zumalacárregui.
DUKINFIELD HENRY Scott, M.A., PA.D., LL.D., F.R.S.

Professor of Botany. Royal College of Science, London, 1885-1892. Formerly
President of the Royal Microscopical Society and of the Linnean Society." Author { williamson, William Crawford.

of Structural Botany; Sludies in Fossil Bolany; &c.
DAVID RANDALL-MACIVER, M.A., D.Sc.

Curator of Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania, Formerly Worcester Zimbabwe.
Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia; &c.

C. L. K.

C. R. B.

C. W.R.

D. B. M.

{Wolf

, Friedrich August

D. F. T.

D. G. E.

D. B.

D. H. S.

D. R.-M.

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