« AnteriorContinuar »
bility of finding a proper place to winter between the latitudes of 60° and 70°, but they state, “that if in your wisedom you shall think good to make any discouery, either in 60° or 57", with this faire northerly winde, we yeeld our lives with yourselfe to encounter any danger. Thus much we thought needefull to signifie, as a matter builded vpon reason, and not proceeding vpon feare or cowardise.”
In latitude 61° 40' N, var. 35' W., Waymouth states that he entered an inlet, into which he sailed west by south one hundred leagues. North-west Fox declares this to be “no such matter," and Sir John Barrow (p. 168) "impossible;” and it seems with great reason, for had he pursued such a course, he must have gone on shore on the west side of Ablorialik Bay. There is much to be doubted in Waymouth's account of his voyage ; the loose manner in which his journal is kept, from the time of his reaching Cape Warwick to the day when his crew mutined,—his calling every land that he sighted “ America,” — and, lastly, the mis-statement which originated with him, that the expedition was fitted out by the Muscovy and Levant Companies, all appear to shew that the commander had somewhat more to do with the “bearing vp of the helme” than he would wish us to believe, and throw a great deal of doubt on the assertion that he reached the latitude of 68° 53'. Fox remarks: “He neyther discovered nor named anything more than Davis, nor had any sight of Greenland, nor was so farre north; nor can I conceive he hath added_any thing more to this designe; yet these two, Davis and he, did, I conceive, light Hudson into his straights."
On Waymouth's return home he was subjected to an examination, to “sattisfy the company of their returne soe suddenly.” Other officers of the expedition were also examined, and they directly charged “Cartwright, the Preacher,” with being the cause of the mutiny, and “ the said Cartwright" was therefore ordered to give up “the gowne and apparell delivered him, to have been vsed yff the voyage had been made to the partes of Cathaia and China."
Some thoughts it appears were entertained of Waymouth being again sent out, but after a long discussion on the subject, which lasted from November, 1602, to May, 1603, it was abandoned, apparently from pecuniary considerations.
Private Voyages of Discovery at the expense of Alderman
Cherie-The King of Denmark provides a Vessel, but gives the command to British Navigators—Knight sent out by the Muscovy and East India Merchants—Loss of the Captain and part of the Crew-Escape of the remainder to Newfoundland-Hudson's first Expedition under the Muscovy Company–His second, with the Particulars of his Reception by the Natives on the site of New YorkAcquisition of Land— Derivation of Name-Hudson's last and Fatal Voyage—Great Hardships-Blockage in the IceHis Crew Mutiny, and turn him adrift in an open BoatTheir return to England.
In the year 1603, Alderman Sir Francis Cherie, of London, fitted out the Godspeed, at his own expense, and gave the command to Stephen Bennet. Bennet pursued the old course by the North Cape, Wardhuys, and the river Kola, from whence he steered into the northern sea before him, in a N.N.W. direction. On the 16th August he made Bear Island, but not being aware that it had been before discovered by Barentsz, he re-named it Cherie Island. Nothing further was done this year, but Alderman Cherie again dispatched the same vessel and conımander, for several successive years on fishing voyages.
The king of Denmark being now desirous of making similar discoveries, and valuing highly the skill of the British navigators, caused two ships and a pinnace to be got ready, and appointed John Cunningham, a Scotchman, the chief captain, and James Hall, an Englishman, the principal pilot, the rest of the crews being, except John Knight the steersman, either Danes or Norwegians. They sailed from Copenhagen on the 2nd May, 1605, and on the 30th descried the coast of Greenland, in latitude 59° 50', but were unable to approach on account of the ice. On the 12th June they entered a bight, in latitude 66° 30', the seamen refusing to proceed further. Here they met with some natives, with whom they were so unfortunate as to come into collision, which ended in a furious onslaught being made on the boats. This forced them to put to sea, and abandoning all further attempts at discovery, they returned home. His Danish majesty the following year again despatched the same ships and commanders. They reached the American shore in the latitude of 60° 15', and ranged northwards to 63° 33', when they bore away for Greenland, the coast of which they spent a month in exploring, after which they returned home.
Meanwhile, Cunningham and Hall being engaged in exploring the western coast of Greenland, their former comrade, John Knight, was entrusted by the Muscovy and East India merchants with the command of the Hopewell, a pinnace of forty tons. He sailed from Gravesend on the 18th April, 1606, and was detained fourteen days at the Orkneys, where he shipped “two lustie fellows.". Proceeding on his voyage, on the 14th June he was off some broken land, in latitude 56° 25. N. In latitude 56° 48' N., the land rose like eight islands.
On the 24th June, a tremendous storm of wind arose, and the ship broke away from her moorings in a small cove in which she was then brought up, and before she could be again secured, had knocked away
her rudder, and was half full of water. Here ends the account of the voyage written by the captain ; the rest is from the pen of one of the ship's company.—On the 26th of June, trusting to discover a more convenient harbour, Knight took with him his mate and three men, well armed with muskets, and landed on the opposite coast. The men left in charge of the boat, waited in vain for their return, and dismay seized on them all, when the 28th came and their comrades did not appear. On the night that succeeded that day, a new calamity happened to them :--they were furiously set upon by about fifty“ little people, tawnie coloured, thin or no beards, and flat nosed," whose attack appeared to have been premeditated. In the darkness of the night, with the rain falling in torrents, and their minds full of horrors, we cannot but admire the courage of these eight stout-hearted men, when we find them driving off their terrible assailants.
The carpenter exerted himself to finish a small shallop he had commenced building, which was, when completed, in no better condition than the crazy ship. But feeling the imperative necessity of exerting every means to free themselves from their perilous position, they got under weigh, preferring the impending danger of foundering, to a second visit from the little
people, whom, in their fears, they had designated as man-eaters.
After a most perilous voyage of three weeks, in which their ingenuity as well as their courage was sorely tried, they arrived at Fogo, in Newfoundland, completely worn out by fatigue. Here they were most hospitably received, and reached Dartmouth on the 24th December.
In 1607, the Muscovy Company sent out Henry Hudson, whose name is renowned in connexion