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That the things of the Old Testament are Types of things apper
taining to the Messiah and his kingdom and salvation, made manifest from the Old Testament itself.
We find by the Old Testament, that it has ever been God's manner from the beginning of the world, to exhibit and reveal future things by symbolical representations, which were no other than types of the future things revealed. Thus when future things were made known in visions, the things that were seen were not the future things themselves, but some other things that were made use of as shadows, symbols, or types of the things. Thus the bowing of the sheaves of Joseph's brethren, and the sun, moon, and stars doing obeisance to him, and Pharaoh's fat and lean kine, and Nebuchadnezzar's image, and Daniel's four beasts, &c. were figures or types of the future things represented by them. And not only were types and figures made use of to represent future things when they were revealed by visions and dreams, but also when they were revealed by the word of the Lord coming by the mouth of the prophets, (as it is expressed.) The prophecies that the prophets uttered concerning future things, were generally by similitudes, figures, and symbolical representations. Hence prophecies were of old called parables ; as Balaam's prophecies, and especially the prophecies of the things of the Messiah's kingdom The prophecies are given forth in allegories, and the things foretold spoken of, not under the proper names of the things themselves, but under the names of other things that are made use of in the prophecy as symbols or types of the things foretold. And it was the manner in those ancient times, to deliver divine instructions in general in symbols and emblems, and in their speeches and discourses to make use of types, and figures, and enigmatical speeches, into which holy men were led by the Spirit of God. This manner of delivering wisdom was originally divine, as may VOL. IX.
be argued from that of Solomon. Prov. i. 6. “To understand a proverb, (or parable,) and the interpretation, the words of the wise and their dark sayings;" and from that of the psalmist, Ps. xlix. 3, 4, “ My mouth shall speak of wisdom, and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding. I will incline mine ear to a parable. I will open my dark sayings upon the harp.” And Ps. lxxviii. 1, 2. “Give ear, O my people, to my law; incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in a parable, I will utter dark sayings of old.” By a parable is meant an enigmatical symbolical speech. Ezek. xvii. 2, and xxiii. 3. Hence speeches of divine wisdom in general came to be called parables, as the speeches of Job and his friends. Hence of old the wise men of all nations, who derived their wisdom chiefly by tradition from the wise men of the church of God, who spoke by inspiration, fell into that method. They received instruction that way, and they imitated it. Hence it became so much the custom in the eastern nations to deal so much in enigmatical speeches and dark figures, and to make so much use of symbols and bieroglyphics, to represent divine things, or things appertaining to their gods and their religion. It seems to have been in imitation of the prophets and other holy and eminent persons in the church of God, who were inspired, ihat it became so universally the custom among all ancient nations, for their priests, prophets, and wise men to utter their auguries, and to deliver their knowledge and wisdom in their writings and speeches in allegories and enigmas, and under symbolical representations. Every thing that the wise said must be in a kind of allegory, and vailed with types: as it was also the manner of the heathen oracles, lo utter themselves under the like representations.
We find that it was God's manner throughout the ages of the Old Testament, to typify future things, not only as he signified them by symbolical and typical representations in those visions and prophecies in which they were revealed, but also as he made use of ihose things that had an actual existence, to typify them, either by events that he brought to pass by his special providence to that end, or by things that he appointed and commanded to be done for that end.
We find future things typified by what God did himself, by things that he brought to pass by his special providence. Thus the future struggling of the two nations of the Israelites and Edomites was typified by Jacob's and Esau's struggling together in the womb. Gen. xxv. 22, 23. “ And the children struggled together within her, and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the Lord ; and the Lord said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels. And the one people shall be stronger than the other people, and the elder shall serve the younger." And the prevalence of Jacob over Esau, and his supplanting him, so as to get away his birthright and blessing, and his posterity's prevailing over the Edomites, was typified by Jacob's hand tak. ing bold on Esau's heel in the birth. Gen. xxv. 26. “And after that came his brother out, and his hand took bold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob," or supplanter. Chap. xxvii. 36. “ Is he not rightly named Jacob? for he hath supplanted me these two times. He took away my birthright, and behold now he hath taken away my blessing.” Hosea xii. 3. 6. “He took his brother by the heel in the womb—Therefore, turn thou to thy God," &c. And as the Israelites overcoming and supplanting their eneinies in their struggling or wrestling with them, was typified by Jacob's taking hold on Esau's heel, so Jacob's and his seed's prevailing with God, in their spiritual wrestling with him, was typified by his wrestling with God and prevailing. Gen. xxxii. 28. ** Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for as a prioce thou hast power with God and with men, and hast prevailed.” Hos. xii. 4. “ Yea, he had power over the angel, and prevailed: he wept and made supplication unto him. He found him in Bethel, and there he spake with us, even the Lord God of hosts, the Lord is his memorial. Therefore, turn thou to thy God : keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually.” The prevalence of the posterity of Pharez over Zarah, who first put forth his hand, was typified by his unexpectedly breaking forth out of the womb before him. Gen. xxxix. 29. So by Moses's being wonderfully preserved in the midst of great waters, though but a little helpless infant, and being drawn out of the water, seems apparently to be typified the preservation and deliverance of his people, that he was made the bead and deliverer of, who were preserved in the midst of dangers they were io in Egypt, which were ready to overwhelm them, when the prince and people sought to their utmost to destroy them, and root them out, and they had no power to withstand them, but were like an helpless infant, and who were at last wonderfully delivered out of their great and overwhelming troubles and dangers, which in scripture language is delivering out of great waters, or drawing out of many waters. 2 Sam. xxii. 17. “ He sent from above ; he took me, he drew me out of many waters.” And Psal. xviii. 16. It is the same sort of deliverance from cruel blood and blood-thirsty enemies that the psalmist speaks of, that the Israelites were delivered from. And so he does again, Ps. cxliv. 7. “ Send thine hand from above; rid me and deliver me out of great waters from the hand of strange children. And Ps. Ixix. 2. “ I sink in deep noire, where there is no standing; I am come into deep waters, where the floods overflow me;" with verse 14. “ Deliver me out of the mire, and let
me not sink ; let me be delivered from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters.” That the king of Israel smote three times upon the ground with his arrows, was ordered in providence to be a type of his beating the Syrians three times. 2 Kings xiii. 19, 19. The potter's working a work upon the wheels, and the vessel's being marred in the hand of the potter, so that he made it again another vessel, as seemed good to him to make it, at the time when Jeremiah went down to the potter's house, was ordered in providence to be a type of God's dealing with the Jews. Jer. xviii.
The twelve fountains of water and the threescore and ten palmtrees, that were in Elim, Exod. xv. 27, were manifestly types of the twelve patriarchs, the fathers of the tribes, and of the threescore and ten elders of the congregation. The paternity of a family, tribe, or nation, in the language of the Old Testament, is called a fountain. Deut. xxxiii. 23. “ Israel shall dwell in safety alone; the fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of corn and
Ps. Ixviii. 26. - Bless the Lord from the fountain of Israel.” Isai. xlviii. 1. “ Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah." And the church of God is often represented in scripture by a palm-tree or palm-trees. Ps. xcii. 12. Cant. vii. 7, 8. And therefore fitly were the elders or representatives of the church compared to palm-trees. God's people often are compared to trees. Isai. Ixi. 3, and lx. 21, and elsewhere.
We find that God was often pleased to bring to pass extraordinary and miraculous appearances and events, to typify future things. Thus God's making Eve of Adam's rib, was to typify the near relation and strict union of husband and wise, and the respect that is due, in persons in that relation, from one to the other, as is manifest from the account given of it, Gen. ii. 21, 22, 23, 24. " And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh.” And when God spake to Moses from the burning bush, concerning the great affliction and oppression of the children of Israel in Egypt, and promised to preserve and deliver them, what appeared in the bush, viz. its burning with fire, and yet not being consumed, was evidently intended as a type of the same thing that God then spake to Moses about, viz. the church of Israel being in the fire of affliction in Egypt, and appearing in the utmost danger of being utterly consumed there, and yet being marvellously