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toms, is perpetuated only by an acci- the body is in a great measure regulated dental imitation, without knowledge of by the various compressions of the amthe original reason for which it was es- bient element. tablished.
The effects of the air in the production
or cure of corporeal maladies have been Causa latet; res est notissima.
acknowledged from the time of HippocThe cause is secret, but the effect is known.
rates; but no man has yet sufficiently
considered how far it may influence the Conjectures have, indeed, been ad- operations of the genius, though every vanced concerning these habitations of day affords instances of local understandliterature, but without much satisfaction ing, of wits and reasoners, whose faculto the judicious inquirer. Some have ties are adapted to some single spot and imagined that the garret is generally who, when they are removed to any chosen by the wits as most easily rented; other place, sink at once into silence and and concluded that no man rejoices in stupidity. I have discovered, by a long his aërial abode, but on the days of pay- series of observations, that invention and ment. Others suspect that a garret is elocution suffer great impediments from chiefly convenient, as it is remoter than dense and impure vapors, and that the any other part of the house from the tenuity of a defecated air at a proper disouter door, which is often observed to be tance from the surface of the earth, acinfested by visitants, who talk inces- celerates the fancy, and sets at liberty santly of beer, or linen, or a coat, and those intellectual powers which were berepeat the same sounds every morning, fore shackled by too strong attraction, and sometimes again in the afternoon, and unable to expand themselves under without any variation, except that they the pressure of a gross atmosphere. I grow daily more importunate and clamor- have found dullness to quicken into senous, and raise their voices in time from timent in a thin ether, as water, though mournful murmurs to raging vocifera- not very hot, boils in a receiver partly tions. This eternal monotony is always exhausted; and heads, in appearance detestable to a man whose chief pleasure empty, have teemed with notions upon is to enlarge his knowledge, and vary his rising ground, as the flaccid sides of a ideas. Others talk of freedom from football would have swelled out into noise, and abstraction from common
stiffness and extension. business or amusements; and some, yet For this reason I never think myself more visionary, tell us that the faculties qualified to judge decisively of any man's are enlarged by open prospects, and that faculties whom I have only known in one the fancy is more at liberty, when the degree of elevation; but take some opeye ranges without confinement.
portunity of attending him from the celThese conveniences may perhaps all be lar to the garret, and try upon him all found in a well-chosen garret; but surely the various degrees of rarefaction and they cannot be supposed sufficiently im- condensation, tension and laxity. If he portant to have operated unvariably upon is neither vivacious aloft, nor serious bedifferent climates, distant ages, and sepa- low, I then consider him as hopeless; but rate nations. Of an universal practice, as it seldom happens that I do not find there must still be presumed an universal the temper to which the texture of his cause, which, however recondite and ab- brain is fitted, I accommodate him in struse, may be perhaps reserved to make time with a tube of mercury, first markme illustrious by its discovery, and you ing the points most favorable to his inby its promulgation.
tellects, according to rules which I have It is universally known that the facul- long studied, and which I may, perhaps, ties of the mind are invigorated or weak- reveal to mankind in a complete treatise ened by the state of the body, and that of barometrical pneumatology.
Another cause of the gaiety and remedy has been tried; for perhaps he sprightliness of the dwellers in garrets was formed to be great only in a garret, is probably the increase of that vertigin- as the joiner of Aretæus was rational in ous motion with which we are carried no other place but his own shop. round by the diurnal revolution of the I think a frequent removal to various earth. The power of agitation upon
distances from the centre so necessary to the spirits is well known; every man has a just estimate of intellectual abilities, felt his heart lightened in a rapid vehicle, and consequently of so great use in eduor on a galloping horse; and nothing is cation, that if I hoped that the public plainer, than that he who towers to the could be persuaded to so expensive an fifth story is whirled through more space experiment, I would propose, that there by every circumrotation, than another should be a cavern dug, and a tower that grovels upon the ground floor. The erected, like those which Bacon describes nations between the tropics are known to in Solomon's house, for the expansion be fiery, inconstant, inventive, and fanci- and concentration of understanding, acful; because, living at the utmost length cording to the exigence of different of the earth's diameter, they are carried employments or constitutions. Perhaps about with more swiftness than those some that fume away in meditations whom nature has placed nearer to the upon time and space in the tower, might poles; and therefore, as it becomes a wise compose tables of interest at a certain man to struggle with the inconveniencies depth; and he that upon level ground of his country, whenever celerity and stagnates in silence, or creeps in narraacuteness are requisite, we must actuate tive, might, at the height of half a mile, our languor by taking a few turns round ferment into merriment, sparkle with the centre in a garret.
repartee, and froth with declamation. If you imagine that I ascribe to air and Addison observes, that we may find the motion effects which they cannot produce, heat of Virgil's climate in some lines of I desire you to consult your own memory, his Georgic: so, when I read a composiand consider whether you have never tion, I immediately determine the height known a man acquire reputation in his of the author's habitation. As an elaborgarret, which, when fortune or a patron ate performance is commonly said to had placed him upon the first floor, he smell of the lamp, my commendation of was unable to maintain; and who never a noble thought, a sprightly sally, or a recovered his former vigor of understand- bold figure, is to pronounce it fresh from ing, till he was restored to his original the garret; an expression which would situation. That
garret will make break from me upon the perusal of most every man a wit, I am very far from of your papers, did I not believe that supposing; I know there are some who you sometimes quit the garret, and ascend would continue blockheads even on the into the cockloft. summit of the Andes, or on the peak of
HYPERTATUS. Teneriffe. But let not any man be considered as unimprovable till this potent
1 The caves and towers of King Salamona as described in Bacon's The New Atlantis.
BEAU TIBBS AT HOME
OLIVER GOLDSMITH Doctor Goldsmith (1728-1774) is marked for his versatility and his sunny Irish nature. He wrote the popular poem, The Deserted Village; the popular novel
, The Vicar of Wakefield; and one of the three great comedies produced between the time of Shakespeare and the beginning of modern drama, She Stoops to Conquer. His essays are much in the Addisonian manner. Having been the victim of countless practical jokes himself, he constantly places his heroes in embarrassing situations, as shown in "Beau Tibbs at Home" (Citizen of the World papers, Number 55, published in 1760.)
I AM apt to fancy I have contracted a mensely chagrined; but, blast me, when new acquaintance whom it will be no the world laughs at me, I laugh at the easy matter to shake off. My little beau world, and so we are even. My Lord yesterday overtook me again in one of Trip, Bill Squash the Creolian, and I, the public walks, and slapping me on the sometimes make a party at being ridicushoulder, saluted me with an air of the lous; and so we say and do a thousand most perfect familiarity. His dress was things for the joke's sake. But I see you the same as usual, except that he had are grave, and if you are for a fine grave more powder in his hair, wore a dirtier sentimental companion, you shall dine shirt, a pair of temple spectacles, and his with me and my wife to-day; I must inhat under his arm.
sist on't. I'll introduce you to Mrs. As I knew him to be a harmless, amus- Tibbs, a lady of as elegant qualifications ing little thing, I could not return his as any in nature; she was bred, but that's smiles with any degree of severity: so we between ourselves, under the inspection walked forward on terms of the utmost of the Countess of All-night. A charmintimacy, and in a few minutes discussed ing body of voice; but no more of that, all the usual topics preliminary to par- she will give us a song. You shall see ticular conversation. The oddities that my little girl, too, Carolina Wilhelmina marked his character, however, soon be- Amelia Tibbs, a sweet pretty creature! gan to appear; he bowed to several well- I design her for my Lord Drumstick's dressed persons, who, by their manner of eldest son; but that's in friendship, let it returning the compliment, appeared per- go no further: she's but six years old, fect strangers. At intervals, he drew out and yet she walks a minuet, and plays on a pocket-book, seeming to take memo- the guitar immensely already. I intend randums, before all the company, with she shall be as perfect as possible in every much importance and assiduity. In this accomplishment. In the first place, I'll manner he led me through the length of make her a scholar: I'll teach her Greek the whole walk, fretting at his absurdi- myself, and learn that language purties, and fancying myself laughed at not posely to instruct her; but let that be a less than him by every spectator.
secret." When we were got to the end of our Thus saying, without waiting for a reprocession, “Blast me,” cries he, with an ply, he took me by the arm, and hauled air of vivacity, “I never saw the Park so me along. We passed through many thin in my life before! There's no dark alleys and winding ways; for, from company at all to-day; not a single face some motives to me unknown, he seemed to be seen.”—“No company!" interrupted to have a particular aversion to every freI peevishly; "no company, where there is quented street: at last, however, we got such a crowd? why, man, there's too to the door of a dismal-looking house in much. What are the thousands that the outlets of the town, where he inhave been laughing at us but company?" formed me he chose to reside for the -"Lord, my dear," returned he, with benefit of the air. the utmost good humor, "you seem im- We entered the lower door, which
ever seemed to lie most hospitably open; Highlands, one of the politest men in the and I began to ascend an old and creak- world; but that's a secret.” ing staircase, when, as he mounted to We waited some time for Mrs. Tibbs's show me the way, he demanded whether arrival, during which interval I had a I delighted in prospects; to which an- full opportunity of surveying the chamswering in the affirmative, "Then,” says ber and all its furniture, which consisted he, "I shall show you one of the most of four chairs with old wrought bottoms, charming in the world out of my win- that he assured me were his wife's emdow; we shall see the ships sailing, and broidery; a square table that had been the whole country for twenty miles once japanned; a cradle in one corner, a round, tip top, quite high. My Lord lumbering cabinet in the other; a broken Swamp would give ten thousand guineas shepherdess, and a mandarin without a for such a one; but, as I sometimes pleas- head, were stuck over the chimney; and antly tell him, I always love to keep my round the walls several paltry unframed prospects at home, that my friends may pictures, which, he observed, were all his visit me the oftener.”
own drawing. "What do you think, sir, By this time we arrived as high as the of that head in the corner, done in the stairs would permit us to ascend, till manner of Grisoni ? There's the true we came to what he was facetiously keeping in it; it is my own face, and pleased to call the first floor down the though there happens to be no likeness, a chimney; and knocking at the door, a Countess offered me an hundred for its voice from within demanded, "Who's fellow. I refused her, for, hang it, that there?” My conductor answered that would be mechanical, you know." it was him. But this not satisfying the The wife at last made her appearance, querist, the voice again repeated the de- at once a slattern and a coquette; much mand; to which he answered louder than emaciated, but still carrying the remains before; and now the door was opened by of beauty. She made twenty apologies an old woman with cautious reluctance. for being seen in such odious dishabile,
When we were got in, he welcomed me but hoped to be excused, as she had stayed to his house with great ceremony, and out all night at the gardens with the turning to the old woman, asked where Countess, who was excessively fond of the was her lady?"Good troth,” replied horns. "And, indeed, my dear," added she, in a peculiar dialect, “she's washing she, turning to her husband, “his lordyour twa shirts at the next door, because ship drank your health in a bumper.” they have taken an oath against lending "Poor Jack!” cries he; "a dear goodout the tub any longer.' "My two natured creature, I know he loves me. shirts!” cried he in a tone that faltered But I hope, my dear, you have given with confusion; "what does the idiot orders for dinner; you need make no mean?” “I ken what I mean weel great preparations neither, there are but enough," replied the other; "she's wash- three of us; something elegant and little ing your twa shirts at the next door, be- will doa turbot, an ortolan, 1-' cause- "Fire and fury, no more of “Or what do you think, my dear,” interthy stupid explanations!” cried he; “go rupts the wife, "of a nice pretty bit of and inform her we have got company. ox-cheek, piping hot, and dressed with a Were that Scotch hag,” continued he, little of my own sauce?” “The very turning to me, “to be for ever in my fam- thing!" replies he; "it will eat best with ily, she would never learn politeness, nor some smart bottled beer: but be sure to forget that absurd poisonous accent of let us have the sauce his Grace was so hers, or testify the smallest specimen of fond of. I hate your immense loads of breeding or high life; and yet it is very meat; that is country all over; extremely surprising, too, as I had her from a par- disgusting to those who are in the least liament man, a friend of mine from the acquainted with high life.”
By this time my curiosity began to having shown my respect to the house, abate, and my appetite to increase: the according to the fashion of the English, company of fools may at first make us by giving the old servant a piece of money smile, but at last never fails of rendering at the door, I took my leave; Mrs. Tibbs us melancholy; I therefore pretended to assuring me that dinner, if I stayed, would recollect a prior engagement, and, after be ready at least in less than two hours.
GETTING UP ON COLD MORNINGS
LEIGH HUNT James Henry Leigh Hunt (1784-1859) was poet, essayist, and critic. For thirteen years he was one of the editors of The Examiner, a weekly paper designed to encourage liberalism and a taste for literature. In 1812 he made an attack on the Prince Regent in one of his papers and was threatened with fine and imprisonment unless he promised to abstain from further criticism of royalty. This he refused to do and was committed to jail.
Leigh Hunt was the friend of Lamb, Shelley, Byron, Keats, Carlyle, and Hazlitt. He figures in one of Dickens's novels, Bleak House, as Harold Skimpole, an improvident person of small reputation. While widely known as the author of the poem “Abou Ben Adhem and the Angel,” Hunt is at his best in the essay form, of which “Getting Up On Cold Mornings" is a fair example. In this essay, which was first printed in The Indicator, 1820, a certain new note of carefree gaiety may be observed.
An Italian author-Giulio Cordara, it is a fine way of spending a sensible, ima Jesuit-has written a poem upon in- partial half-hour. sects, which he begins by insisting that If these people would be more charitathose troublesome and abominable little ble, they would get on with their arguanimals were created for our annoyance, ment better. But they are apt to reason and that they were certainly not inhabi- so ill, and to assert so dogmatically, that tants of Paradise. We of the north may one could wish to have them stand round dispute this piece of theology; but on the one's bed of a bitter morning, and lie beother hand, it is clear as the snow on the fore their faces. They ought to hear house-tops, that Adam was not under both sides of the bed, the inside and out. the necessity of shaving; and that when If they cannot entertain themselves with Eve walked out of her delicious bower, their own thoughts for half an hour or so, she did not step upon ice three inches it is not the fault of those who can. If thick.
their will is never pulled aside by the Some people say it is a very easy thing enticing arms of imagination, so much to get up of a cold morning. You have the luckier for the stage-coachman, only, they tell you, to take the resolution; Candid inquiries into one's decumand the thing is done. This may be very bency, besides the greater or less privitrue; just as a boy at school has only to leges to be allowed a man in proportion take a flogging, and the thing is over. to his ability of keeping early hours, the But we have not at all made up our work given his faculties, etc., will at least minds upon it; and we find it a very concede their due merits to such reprepleasant exercise to discuss the matter, sentations as the following. In the first candidly, before we get up. This at place, says the injured but calm appealer, least is not idling, though it may be lying. I have been warm all night, and find my It affords an excellent answer to those system in a state perfectly suitable to a who ask how lying in bed can be indulged warm-blooded animal. To get out of in by a reasoning being—a rational this state into the cold, besides the inharcreature. How? Why with the argu-monious and uncritical abruptness of the ment calmly at work in one's head, and transition, is so unnatural to such a the clothes over one's shoulder. Oh creature, that the poets, refining upon