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"You are really going short of food ?” fest sympathy with this extinction, we ap

The cabman smiled; and that smile be- proached the horse. It was a horse that tween those two deep hollows was surely “stood over” a good deal at the knee, and as strange as ever shone on a human in the darkness seemed to have innumerface.

able ribs. And suddenly one of us said: "You may say that,” he said. "Well, “Many people want to see nothing but what does it amount to? Before I picked taxis on the streets, if only for the sake you up, I had one eighteenpenny fare to- of the horses." day; and yesterday I took five shillings. The cabman nodded. And I've got seven bob a day to pay for “This old fellow," he said, “never carthe cab, and that's low, too. There's ried a deal of flesh. His grub don't put many and many a proprietor that's broke spirit into him nowadays; it's not up to and gone-every bit as bad as us. They let much in quality, bui he gets enough of us down as easy as ever they can; you can't it.” get blood from a stone, can you?” Once "And you don't?" again he smiled. “I'm sorry for them, The cabman again took up his whip. too, and I'm sorry for the horses, though “I don't suppose," he said without they come out the best of the three of us, emotion, “any one could ever find anI do believe.

other job for me now. I've been at this One of us muttered something about too long. It'll be the workhouse, if it's the Public.

not the other thing." The cabman turned his face and stared And hearing us mutter that it seemed down through the darkness.

cruel, he smiled for the third time. “The Public?” he said, and his voice “Yes," he said slowly, "it's a bit 'ard had in it a faint surprise. "Well, they on us, because we've done nothing to deall want the taxis. It's natural. They serve it. But things are like that, so far get about faster in them, and time's as I can see. One thing comes pushin' money. I was seven hours before I out another, and so you go on. I've picked you up. And then you was look- thought about it-you get to thinkin' and in' for a taxi. Them as take us because worryin' about the rights o' things, sitthey can't get better, they're not in a tin' up here all day. No, I don't see good temper, as a rule. And there's a anything for it. It'll soon be the end of few old ladies that's frightened of the us now-can't last much longer. And I motors, but old ladies aren't never very don't know that I'll be sorry to have done free with their money-can't afford to be, with it. It's pretty well broke my the most of them, I expect."

spirit." "Everybody's sorry for you; one would “There was a fund got up.” have thought that"

"Yes, it helped a few of us to learn the He interrupted quietly: "Sorrow don't motor-drivin’; but what's the good of that buy bread.

I never had nobody to me, at my time of life? Sixty, that's ask me about things before.” And, my age; I'm not the only one there's slowly moving his long face from side to hundreds like me. We're not fit for it, side, he added: “Besides, what could that's the fact; we haven't got the nerve people do? They can't be expected to It'd want a mint of money to help support you; and if they started askin' And what you say's the truth-peoyou questions they'd feel it very awkward.ple want to see the end of us. They They know that, I suspect. Of course, want the taxis our day's over.

I'm not there's such a lot of us: the hansoms are complaining; you asked me about it yourpretty nigh as bad off as we are. Well, self.” we're gettin' fewer every day, that's one And for the third time he raised his thing.'

whip. Not knowing whether or no to mani- “Tell me what you would have done


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if you had been given your fare and just And this time, with a "Thank you, sixpence over?"

kindly!" he touched his horse's flank with The cabman stared downward, as the whip. Like a thing aroused from though puzzled by that question.

sleep the forgotten creature started and “Done? Why, nothing. What could began to draw the cabman away from us. I have done?"

Very slowly they traveled down the road "But you said that it had saved your among the shadows of the trees broken by life.”

lamplight. Above us, white ships of "Yes, I said that," he answered cloud were sailing rapidly across the slowly; “I was feelin' a bit low. You dark river of sky on the wind which can't help it sometimes; it's the thing smelled of change. And, after the comin' on you, and no way out of it-cab was lost to sight, that wind still that's what gets over you. We try not to brought to us the dying sound of the slow think about it, as a rule."



WU TINGFANG Wu Tingfang (1842-1922), a former Chinese ambassador to the United States, is the author of America through the Spectacles of an Oriental Diplomat (1914), from which "American Manners" is taken. He was one of the leaders in the progressive movement in China, and up to the time of his death had been connected with the South China Government. Doctor Wu was a man of most likable personality and was very popular with his associates. Because of his acquaintance with America he has been able to do more than describe American manners; he has made a real effort to explain them.

Much has been written and more said heard that any diplomats have, on this acabout American manners, or rather the count, objected to being sent to China. American lack of manners. Americans We Chinese are therefore in the same have frequently been criticized for their boat as the Americans. In regard to bad breeding, and many sarcastic refer- manners neither of us find much favor ences to American deportment have been with foreigners, though for diametrically made in my presence. I have even been opposite reasons: the Americans are actold, I do not know how true it is, that cused of observing too few formalities, European diplomats dislike being sta- and we of being too formal. tioned in America, because of their aver- The Americans are direct and straightsion to the American way of doing forward. They will tell you to your things.

face that they like you, and occasionally Much, too, has been written and said they also have very little hesitation in tellabout Chinese manners, not only by for- ing you that they do not like you. They eigners, but also by Chinese. One of the say frankly just what they think. It is classics, which our youth have to know immaterial to them that their remarks are by heart, is practically devoted entirely personal, complimentary or otherwise. I to manners. There has also been much have had members of my own family adverse criticism of our manners or our complimented on their good looks as if excess of manners, though I have never they were children. In this respect

Americans differ greatly from the EngChap. 8 of America through the Specta

lish. The English adhere with meticucles of an Oriental Diplomat by Wu Ting- lous care to the rule of avoiding everyfang. Reprinted by permission of the pub

thing personal. They are very much lishers, Frederick A. Stokes Co., and Mr. Paul R. Reynolds, Dr. Wu Tingfang's Amer

afraid of rudeness on the one hand, and ican agent.

of insincerity or Aattery on the other. Even in the matter of such a harmless serve a good purpose. Like the common affair as a compliment to a foreigner on courtesies and civilities of life they pave his knowledge of English, they will pre- the way for the speakers, especially if they cede it with a request for pardon, and are strangers; they improve their temspeak in a half-apologetic manner, as if pers, and place them generally on terms of complimenting were something personal. mutual understanding. It is said that The English and the Americans are some years ago a Foreign Consul in closely related, they have much in com- China, having a serious complaint to make mon, but they also differ widely, and in on behalf of his national, called on the nothing is the difference more conspicu- | Taotai, the highest local authority in the ous than in their conduct. I have noticed port. He found the Chinese official so curiously enough that English Colonials, genial and polite that after half an hour's especially in such particulars as speech conversation, he advised the complainant and manners, follow their quondam sister to settle the matter amicably without colony, rather than the mother country. troubling the Chinese officials about the And this, not only in Canada, where the matter. A good deal may be said in bephenomenon might be explained by cli- half of both systems. The American matic, geographic, and historic reasons, practice has at least the merit of saving but also in such antipodean places as Aus- time, an all important object with the tralia and South Africa, which are so American people. When we recall that far away as to apparently have very little this remarkable nation will spend milin common either with America or with lions of dollars to build a tunnel under a each other. Nevertheless, whatever the river, or to shorten a curve in a railroad, reason, the transplanted Englishman, merely that they may save two or three whether in the arctics or the tropics, minutes, we are not surprised at the whether in the Northern or the Southern abruptness of their speech. I, as a matter Hemisphere, seems to develop a type quite of fact, when thinking of their timedifferent from the original stock, yet al- saving and abrupt manner of address, ways resembling his fellow emigrants. have been somewhat puzzled to account

The directness of Americans is seen not for that peculiar drawl of theirs. Very only in what they say but in the way they slowly and deliberate they enunciate say it. They come directly to the point, each word and syllable with long-drawn without much preface or introduction, emphasis, punctuating their sentences with much less is there any circumlocution or pauses, some short and some long. It is “beating about the bush.” When they almost an effort to follow a story of any come to see you they say their say and length-the beginning often becomes cold then take their departure, moreover they before the end is reached. It seems to me say it in the most terse, concise and unam- that if Americans would speed up their biguous manner. In this respect what a speech after the fashion of their English contrast they are to us! We always ap- cousins, who speak two or three times as proach each other with preliminary greet- quickly, they would save many minutes ings. Then we talk of the weather, of every day, and would find the habit not politics or friends, of anything, in fact, only more efficacious, but much more which is as far as possible from the object economical than many of their time-savof the visit. Only after this introduction ing machines and tunnels. I offer this do we broach the subject uppermost in { suggestion to the great American nation our minds, and throughout the conver- for what it is worth, and I know they sation polite courtesies are exchanged will receive it in the spirit in which it is whenever the opportunity arises. These made, for they have the saving sense of elaborate preludes and interludes may, to humor. the strenuous ever-in-a-hurry American, Some people are ridiculously sensitive. seem useless and superfluous, but they | Some years ago, at a certain place, a big

dinner was given in honor of a notable about it than the rest of us. Then there who was passing through the district. A are different notions about this question Chinese, prominent in local affairs, who of saving time, different notions of what had received an invitation, discovered that wastes time and what does not, and much though he would sit among the honored which the old world regards as politeness guests he would be placed below one or and good manners Americans consider as two whom he thought he ought to be sheer waste of time. Time is, they think, above, and who, he therefore considered, far too precious to be occupied with cerewould be usurping his rightful position. monies which appear empty and meaningIn disgust he refused to attend the din- less. It can, they say, be much more ner, which, excepting for what he imag- profitably filled with other and more useined was a breach of manners, he would ful occupations. In any discussion of have been very pleased to have attended. American manners it would be unfair to Americans are much more sensible. They leave out of consideration their indifare not a bit sensitive, especially in small ference to ceremony and their highly dematters. Either they are broad-minded veloped sense of the value of time, but enough to rise above unworthy trifles, or in saying this I do not forget that many else their good Americanism prevents Americans are devout ritualists, and that their squabbling over questions of prece- these find both comfort and pleasure in dence, at the dinner table or elsewhere. ceremony, which suggests that after all

Americans act up to their Declaration there is something to be said for the of Independence, especially the principle Chinese who have raised correct deportit enunciates concerning the equality of ment almost to the rank of a religion. man. They lay so much importance on The youth of America have not unthis that they do not confine its applica- naturally caught the spirit of their elders, tion to legal rights, but extend it even to so that even children consider themselves social intercourse. In fact, I think this as almost on a par with their parents, as doctrinc is the basis of the so-called Amer- almost on the same plane of equality; but ican manners. All men are deemed so- the parents, on the other hand, also treat cially equal, whether as friend and friend, them as if they were equals, and allow as President and citizen, as employer and them the utmost freedom. While a employee, as master and servant, or as Chinese child renders unquestioning parent and child. Their relationship obedience to his parents' orders, such may be such that one is entitled to de- obedience as a soldier yields to his sumand, and the other to render, certain perior officer, the American child must acts of obedience, and a certain amount of have the whys and the wherefores duly respect, but outside that they are on the explained to him, and the reason for his same level. This is doubtless a rebellion obedience made clear. It is not his parent against all the social ideas and prejudices that he obeys, but expediency and the dicof the old world, but it is perhaps only tates of reason. Here we see the clearwhat might be looked for in a new coun- headed, sound, common-sense business try, full of robust and ambitious man- man in the making.

the making. The early training hood, disdainful of all traditions which in of the boy has laid the foundation for the the least savor of monarchy or hierarchy, future man. The child, too, has no comand eager to blaze as new a path for it- punction in correcting a parent even beself in the social as it has succeeded in fore strangers, and what is stranger still accomplishing in the political world. the parent accepts the correction in good Combined with this is the American char- part, and sometimes even with thanks. A acteristic of saving time. Time is pre- parent is often interrupted in the course cious to all of us, but to Americans it is of a narrative, or discussion, by a small particularly so. We all wish to save piping voice, setting right, or what it betime, but the Americans care much more lieves to be right, some date, place, or fact, and the parent, after a word of en- the same way that Canada and Australia couragement or thanks, proceeds. How are no longer English "colonies,” but different is our rule that a child is not to "self-governing dominions. speak until spoken to! In Chinese official We of the old world are accustomed to life under the old régime it was not eti- regard domestic service as a profession in quette for one official to contradict an- which the members work for advancement, other, especially when they were unequal without much thought of ever changing in rank. When a high official expressed their position. A few clever persons may views which his subordinates did not en- ultimately adopt another profession, and, dorse, they could not candidly give their according to our antiquated conservative opinion, but had to remain silent. I re- ways of thinking, rise higher in the social member that some years ago some of my scale, but, for the large majority, the digcolleagues and I had an audience with a nity of a butler, or a housekeeper, is the very high official, and when I expressed height of ambition, the crowning point in my dissent from some of the views of that

their career. Not so the American serhigh functionary, he rebuked me severely. vant. Strictly speaking there are no serAfterward he called me to him privately vants in America. The man, or the and spoke to me somewhat as follows: woman as the case may be, who happens "What you said just now was quite cor- for the moment to be your servant, is only rect. I was wrong, and I will adopt servant for the time being. He has no your views, but you must not contradict intention of making domestic service his me in the presence of other people. Do profession, of being a servant for the not do it again.” There is of course

whole of his life. To have to be subject much to be said for and against each sys- to the will of others, even to the small.extem, and perhaps a blend of the two tent to which American servants are subwould give good results. Anyhow, we ordinate, is offensive to an American's can trace in American customs that spirit pride of citizenship, it is contrary to his of equality which pervades the whole of conception of American equality. He is American society, and observe the germs a servant only for the time, and until he of self-reliance and independence so char- finds something better to do. He acacteristic of Americans, whether men, cepts a menial position only as a stepping women, or children.

stone to some more independent employEven the domestic servant does not ment. Is it to be wondered at that lose this precious American heritage of American servants have different manequality. I have nothing to say against ners from their brethren in other counthat worthy individual, the American tries? When foreigners find that Amerservant (if one can be found); on the ican servants are not like servants in contrary, none is more faithful or more their own country, they should not resent efficient. But in some respects he is their behavior: it does not denote disunique among the servants of the world. respect, it is only the outcrop of their He does not see that there is any in- natural independence and aspiration. equality between him and his master. His All titles of nobility are by the Constimaster, or should I say, his employer, tution expressly forbidden. Even titles pays him certain wages to do certain of honor or courtesy are but rarely used. work, and he does it, but outside the "Honorable" is used to designate membounds of this contract, they are still man bers of Congress; and for a few Amerand man, citizen and citizen. It is all icans, such as the President and the beautifully, delightfully legal. The Ambassadors, the title "Excellency" is washerwoman is the "wash-lady," and is permitted. Yet, whether it is because the just as much a lady as her mistress. The persons entitled to be so addressed do not word "servant" is not applied to domes- think that even these mild titles are contics, "help" is used instead, very much in sistent with American democracy, or be

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