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- so badly wounded that he cannot sup- others. Late after vespers, the king of ort himself?” “Nothing of the sort, France had not more about him than lank God,” rejoined the knight; "but he sixty men, every one included. Sir John

in so hot an engagement that he has of Hainault, who was of the number, had reat need of your help.” The king an- once remounted the king; for his horse vered, “Now, sir Thomas, return back had been killed under him by an arrow: > those that sent you, and tell them from he said to the king, “Sir, retreat while ie, not to send again for me this day, or you have an opportunity, and do not exxpect that I shall come, let what will pose yourself so simply: if you have lost appen, as long as my son has life; and this battle, another time you will be the ay, that I command them to let the boy conqueror.' After he had said this, he rin his spurs; for I am determined if it took the bridle of the king's horse, and lease God, that all the glory and honor led him off by force; for he had before f this day shall be given to him, and to entreated of him to retire. The king hose into whose care I have intrusted rode on until he came to the castle of La

The knight returned to his lords, Broyes, where he found the gates shut, nd related the king's answer, which for it was very dark. The king ordered nightily encouraged them, and made the governor of it to be summoned: he hem repent they had ever sent such came upon the battlements, and asked nessage.

who it was that called at such an hour? It is a certain fact, that sir Godfrey de The king answered, “Open, open, goverHarcourt, who was in the prince's bat- nor; it is the fortune of France.” The alion, having been told by some of the governor, hearing the king's voice, English, that they had seen the banner immediately descended, opened the gate, of his brother engaged in the battle and let down the bridge. The king and against him, was exceedingly anxious to his company entered the castle; but he save him; but he was too late, for he was had only with him five barons, sir John left dead on the field, and so was the earl of Hainault, the lord Charles of Montof Aumarle his nephew. On the other morency, the lord of Beaujeu, the lord hand, the earls of Alençon and of Flan- of Aubigny, and the lord of Montfort. ders were fighting lustily under their The king would not bury himself in such banners, and with their own people; but a place as that, but, having taken some they could not resist the force of the refreshments, set out again with his atEnglish, and were there slain, as well as tendants about midnight, and rode on, many other knights and squires that were under the direction of guides who were attending on or accompanying them. The well acquainted with the country, until, earl of Blois, nephew to the king of about daybreak, he came to Amiens, France, and the duke of Lorraine, his where he halted. This Saturday the brother-in-law, with their troops, made a English never quitted their ranks in purgallant defence; but they were sur- suit of any one, but remained on the rounded by a troop of English and field, guarding their position, and deWelsh, and slain in spite of their prow- fending themselves against all who at

The earl of St. Pol and the earl of tacked them. The battle was ended at Auxerre were also killed, as well as many

the hour of vespers.




Otto Trevelyan, Bart., born in 1838, is the nephew of Lord Macaulay. He is distinguished as the author of two standard works: The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, a notable biography; and The American Revolution, the first part of which was published in 1899. This latter work is strangely sympathetic with the American point of view and presents many interesting sidelights on the statesmen and soldiers of the time: In method it is directly opposed to Froissart, in that it seeks causes and weighs evidence relating to the events recorded.

IT CANNOT of course be denied that inflicted, arrayed. men of all classes, in America, and most of all in New Eng. creeds, and parties in opposition to the land, enmity to the claims of the Revenue interests of the Exchequer, and to the was active and universal. The origin officers by whom those interests were of that enmity lay far back in history. It guarded. A gentleman of New York has been observed by a writer, who knew says, in a letter written shortly after the his subject well, that the part which the American Revolution broke out: "I fix merchants and shipowners of the North- all the blame of these proceedings on the ern colonies played in the contest with Presbyterians. You would ask whether the home Government has been under- no Church of England people were stated both as regards the importance of among them. Yes, there were; to their their action, and the breadth and justice eternal shame be it spoken. But in genof the motives by which it was inspired. eral they were interested either as smugThey had been born into the inheritance glers of tea, or as being overburdened of a cruel wrong, which was more deeply with dry goods they knew not how to felt as the forces that govern trade came pay for." Thomas Hancock,—the unto be better understood, and in some cases cle of John Hancock, to whom, oblivious were for the first time discovered. Crom- of political divergences, he left most of well, with an insight beyond his age, had his property,—was an ardent royalist and refused to fetter and discourage the in- a declared Tory. He was reputed to be fant commerce of America; and under worth that comfortable amount of money the Commonwealth that commerce grew which his contemporaries, in the phrase fast towards prosperous maturity. But used by Pope and Arbuthnot, still called a Stuart was no sooner on the throne a plum. Hancock had made the better than the British Parliament entered on a part of his fortune by importing contracourse of selfish legislation which killed band tea from Holland, and supplying it the direct maritime trade between our de- to the mess-tables of the army and navy. pendencies and foreign ports, and, (to Considering that it was to people holding borrow the words of an eminent his- his political opinions that the Crown lawtorian,) deliberately crushed every yers would resort if they had occasion to form of colonial manufacture which pack a jury, it is not difficult to comcould possibly compete with the manu- pute their chances of securing a convicfactures of England.

tion on a charge of evading the Revenue. The traditional resentment against such Whenever a gauger or tide-waiter was injustice, kept alive by the continuing and found tripping, the Court-house overever-increasing material injury which it flowed in every quarter with triumphant

emotion. About the period of Preston's From The American Revolution by Sir trial, John Adams argued a suit for a George

Trevelyan, Bart. Published by Longo penalty against a Custom-house officer for mans, Green and Co. Reprinted by permission.

taking greater fees than those allowed by 2William E. H. Lecky, England in the

law: and, in his own estimation, he arEighteenth century.

gued it very indifferently. He won his

case; and in the enthusiasm of the mo- language used on the quarter-deck of the ment, somewhat to his amusement and flagship into overt acts. He stopped yet more to his disgust, he was over- and searched vessels without adequate whelmed with assurances that he had out- pretext, seized goods illegally, and fired done all his own previous efforts, and at the market boats as they entered Newwould thenceforward rank as an equal of port harbor. He treated the farmers on the greatest orator that ever spoke in the islands much as the Saracens in the Rome or Athens.

Middle Ages treated the coast population For ten years past, ever since George of Italy, cutting down their trees for Grenville'st influence began to be felt fuel, and taking their sheep when his in the distant parts of the Empire, the crew ran short of fresh meat. The inclaims of the Revenue had been enforced jured parties made their voices heard; with unwonted rigor, which in the sum- and the case was laid before the Admiral, mer of 1771 assumed an aggressive and who approved the conduct of his subordexasperating character. Sandwich, who inate officer, and announced that, as sure had succeeded Hawke at the Admiralty, as any people from Newport attempted had appointed an officer with his own sur- to rescue a vessel, he would hang them name, and, (as it is superfluous to state,) as pirates. It was a foolish answer as of his own party, to command the power- addressed to men who were not longful squadron now stationed in American suffering, nor particular as to their methwaters. Admiral Montagu, who came ods of righting a grievance; and they fresh from hearing the inner mind of the resolved that, if it came to a hanging matBedfords as expressed in the confidence of ter, it should be for a sheep, and not for the punch-bowl, was always ready to a lamb. At the first convenient oppormake known his opinion of New Eng- tunity they boarded the royal schooner, land and its inhabitants in epithets which, set the crew on shore, and burned the on a well-ordered man-of-war, were vessel to the water's edge. A terrible seldom heard abaft the mast. In compari- commotion followed. Thurlow, in his son with him, (so it was said,) an Amer- capacity as Attorney-General, denounced ican freeholder, living in a log-house the crime as of a deeper dye than piracy, twenty feet square, was a well-bred and and reported that the whole business was polite man. To make matters worse, the of five times the magnitude of the Stamp Admiral's lady was as much too fine as Act. By a Royal order in Council the the Admiral himself was coarse.

“She authorities of Rhode Island were comis very full,” wrote Adams, “of her re- manded to deliver the culprits into the marks at the assembly and the concert. hands of the Admiral, with a view of 'Can this lady afford the jewels and their being tried in London. But before dresses she wears?' 'Oh, that my son the crew of a Providence fishing-boat should come to dance with a mantua- could be arraigned at the Old Bailey, maker!'” Between them they encour- and hanged in chains in the Essex aged, in those officers whom their example marshes, they had first to be got out of swayed, a tone of arrogance and incivil- Narragansett Bay; and Stephen Hopkins, ity foreign indeed to a noble service. the old Chief Justice of Rhode Island,

The Navy, like every profession, has refused to lend his sanction to their arits bad bargains; and the lieutenant in rest in face of the destiny which awaited command of the schooner Gaspee, which them. Admiral Montagu himself, right was watching the coast of Rhode Island, for once, acknowledged that British Acts set himself to the task of translating the of Parliament,--at any rate such Acts as -would never go down in America un- to such a bitter end. England, outside less forced by the point of the sword. Parliament and within it, was tired of And the estimable and amiable Dart- bullying and coercing men who after all mouth, who now was Secretary of the were Englishmen, whose case rested on Colonies, contrived to hush up a difficulty honored English precedents, and was as which, as he was told by a wise and serted and maintained by honest English friendly correspondent, if it had been methods. Never was a community, (as pressed to an extreme issue, "would have the men of Massachusetts pathetically set the continent into a fresh flame." complained,) so long and so pitilessly as

the revived statute of Henry the Eighth, First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1763-1765). Hated in America for his revenue measures, espe

2Criminal court of London with prison cially the Stamp Act.


It was too much to expect that Sand- sailed with malicious abuse as theirs had wich and Thurlow would sit quiet under been during the past two years by enemies their defeat. There was no use in hav- | in London and within their own borders. ing the law, good or bad, on their side The reaction now set in; and a large and if those who interpreted and administered increasing section of the English nation it in America were independent of their watched with respect, and often with influence and dictation. The members sympathy, a resistance conducted on strict of that Cabinet were never slow to make constitutional lines to that which, even as up a prescription for anything which they seen from England, looked very like a regarded as a disease in the body politic; deliberate system of small-minded and and, as usual, they tried it first on Massa- vexatious tyranny. In July 1773, Frankchusetts. It was arranged that her lin addressed a letter from London to judges should henceforward have their Thomas Cushing, then Speaker of the salaries paid by the Crown, and not by Massachusetts Assembly. "With rethe Colony. Samuel Adams discerned gard,” he said, "to the sentiments of peothe threatening nature of the proposal ple in general here concerning America, itself, and foresaw the grave perils in- I must say that we have among them volved in the principle which lay beneath many friends and well-wishers. The it. At his instigation the patriots of Dissenters are all for us, and many of the Boston invited all the townships of the merchants and manufacturers. There province to establish Committees of Cor- seems to be, even among the country genrespondence for the purpose of guarding tlemen, a growing sense of our importtheir chartered rights, and adjured every ance, a disapprobation of the harsh measlegislative body throughout America to ures with which we have been treated, and aid them in repelling an invasion which, a wish that some means might be found if it succeeded in their own case, un

of perfect reconcilation." doubtedly would be directed in turn Under such circumstances it would against all their neighbors. Massachu- have seemed impossible that a Ministry setts rose to the call; and the Assembly could rise to such a height of perverted of Virginia, with the political instinct ingenuity as to deliver Massachusetts which seldom misled it, took prompt and from her isolation; to unite all the colocourageous action; but in other quarters nies in sudden, hot, and implacable disthe response was neither hearty nor uni- affection towards the Crown; and to versal. The spirit which had defeated drive them into courses which would the Stamp Act could not be aroused at shock the pride and alienate the goodshort notice and on a partial issue; and will of England. But even that feat friends and adversaries alike knew that proved to be within the resources of the threatened colony, if things came to statesmanship. Foremost the worst, must be prepared to rely questions of the day at Westminster was mainly upon herself.

the condition of the East India ComThere was, however, good reason to pany, which now stood on the verge of doubt whether the mother-country was in bankruptcy. The home Government the temper to fight so paltry a matter came forward handsomely with a large

among the

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ian on easy terms, and a pledge not to ary laws to keep the friends of the deisist on an annual tribute of four hun- ceased from drinking his widow and red thousand pounds which India had orphans out of house and home; and smehow contrived to pay, in spite of her whatever the gentlemen, who drove and eficits, into the British exchequer. But, rode in to a funeral from thirty miles ver and above these palliatives, the Cab- round, were in the habit of drinking, the iet had at its disposal the means of re- ladies drank tea. The very Indians, in eving the famous Corporation from all default of something stronger, took it s embarrassments. There lay stored in twice a day; and however much attached he warehouses tea and other Indian they might be to their Great Father beoods to the value of four millions, which yond the water, it must not be supposed lad been in course of accumulation ever that they made special arrangements in ince the Company, not by its own fault, order to ensure that he had been paid his iad lost a most promising customer. The dues on the article which they consumed. Imerican colonies, making a protest If only the Chancellor of the Exchequer, gainst their fiscal wrongs in a form with a few heartfelt sentences of frank vhich had its attractions for a thrifty retraction and cordial welcome, had veople, had supplied themselves with thrown completely open the door of the muggled tea from France, Denmark, Custom-house which already was ajar, all Sweden, and especially from Holland; would have been well, then and thereand those foreign merchants who had after. Before Parliament was many sesbeen tempted into the trade soon learned sions older, America, (after a less questo accompany their consignments of tea tionable fashion than the expression, with other sorts of Oriental produce. when used in an English budget speech, The Custom-house officers reckoned that usually implies,) would have drunk the Indian goods, which paid nothing to the East India Company out of all its diffiTreasury and brought no profit to the culties. Company, found their way into America A course which went direct to the to the amount of half a million in money right point was not of a nature to find every twelvemonth.

favor with George the Third and his The opportunity was golden, and with- Ministers. They adopted by preference out alloy. If Ministers could bring a plan under which the East India Comthemselves to adopt the suggestion made pany was allowed a drawback of the by the East Indian Directors, and advise whole Tea-duty then payable in England, a willing House of Commons to repeal while the Exchequer continued to claim the Tea-duty, they would by one and the the three-pence on the pound which was same straightforward and easy operation, paid, (or, to speak more exactly, left unchoke up the underground channels along paid) in America. Their object was which commerce had begun to flow, pa- such as every one who ran a boatload of cify the colonies, and save the East India smuggled goods between Penobscot Bay, Company. The demand of the Amer- and the mouth of the Savannah River, ican market for tea was already enormous. could read. This wise scheme, The most portable and easily prepared of Franklin put it,) was to take off as much beverages, it was then used in the back- duty in England as would make the Comwoods of the West as lavishly as now in pany's tea cheaper in America than any the Australian bush. In more settled which foreigners could supply; and at the districts the quantity absorbed on all same time to maintain the duty in Ameroccasions of ceremony is incredible to a ica, and thus keep alive the right of Pargeneration which has ceased to rejoice liament to tax the colonies. "They have and to mourn in large companies, and at no idea," he wrote, "that any people can great cost. The legislative assembly of act from any other principle but that of more than one colony had passed sumptu- | interest; and they believe that threepence

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