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danger. Realizing perfectly the appall- did she show herself a more furious paring implications of an Anglo-Russian tisan. But her displeasure was not 16 war, he was yet prepared to face even served for the Radicals; the backsliding that eventuality if he could obtain his Conservatives equally felt its force. She ends by no other method; but he believed was even discontented with Lord Bea that Russia in reality was still less de consfield himself. Failing entirely to ap sirous of a rupture, and that, if he played preciate the delicate complexity of hi his game with sufficient boldness and policy, she constantly assailed him wit adroitness, she would yield, when it came demands for vigorous action, interprete to the point, all that he required without each finesse as a sign of weakness, and a blow. It was clear that the course he was ready at every juncture to let slip th had marked out for himself was full of dogs of war. As the situation developed hazard, and demanded an extraordinary her anxiety

grew feverish. "The nerve; a single false step, and either him- Queen,” she wrote, "is feeling terribly self, or England, might be plunged in dis- anxious lest delay should cause us to bi aster. But nerve he had never lacked ; too late and lose our prestige for ever he began his diplomatic egg-dance with It worries her night and day." "Thi high assurance; and then he discovered Faery,” Beaconsfield told Lady Bradford that, besides the Russian Government, "writes every day and telegraphs every besides the Liberals and Mr. Gladstone, hour; this is almost literally the case." there were two additional sources of peril. She raged loudly against the Russians ous embarrassment with which he would “And the language," she cried, "the in have to reckon. In the first place there was sulting language used by the Russian a strong party in the Cabinet,,headed by against us! It makes the Queen's blood Lord Derby, the Foreign Secretary, which boil!” “Oh,” she wrote a little later was unwilling to take the risk of war; “if the Queen were a man, she would like but his culminating anxiety was the Faery. to go and give those Russians, whose

From the first, her attitude was uncom- word one cannot believe, such a beating promising. The old hatred of Russia, We shall never be friends again till we which had been engendered by the Cri- have it out. This the Queen feels surt mean War, surged up again within her; of." she remembered Albert's prolonged ani- The unfortunate Prime Minister mosity; she felt the prickings of her own urged on to violence by Victoria on one greatness; and she flung herself into the side, had to deal, on the other, with a turmoil with passionate heat. Her in- Foreign Secretary who was fundamen dignation with the Opposition—with any- tally opposed to any policy of active inter one who ventured to sympathize with the ference at all. Between the Queen and Russians in their quarrel with the Turks Lord Derby he held a harassed course -was unbounded. When anti-Turkish He gained, indeed, some slight satisfac meetings were held in London, presided tion in playing off the one against the over by the Duke of Westminster and other-in stimulating Lord Derby with Lord Shaftesbury, and attended by Mr. the Queen's missives, and in appeasing the Gladstone and other prominent Radicals, Queen by repudiating Lord Derby's opinshe considered that "the Attorney-Gen- ions; on one occasion he actually went sa eral ought to be set at these men"; "it far as to compose, at Victoria's request, a can't,” she exclaimed, “be constitutional.” | letter bitterly attacking his colleague Never in her life, not even in the crisis which Her Majesty forthwith signed, over the Ladies of the Bedchamber, and sent, without alteration, to the For

eign Secretary. But such devices only 1 Victoria had raised a constitutional question when she refused to change her Whig

gave a temporary relief; and it soon beLadies of the Bed Chamber after a Tory vic

came evident that Victoria's martial tory in Parliament.

ardor was not to be side-tracked by hos


ities against Lord Derby; hostilities could only," he wrote, "face the scene ainst Russia were what she wanted, which would occur at headquarters if I hat she would, what she must, have. resigned, I would do so at once.” or now, casting aside the last relics of He held on, however, to emerge vicoderation, she began to attack her torious at last. The Queen was pacified; end with a series of extraordinary Lord Derby was replaced by Lord Salisreats. Not once, not twice, but many bury; and at the Congress of Berlin der nes she held over his head the for- alte Jude' carried all before him. He idable menace of her imminent abdica- returned to England in triumph, and ason. "If England,” she wrote to Bea- sured the delighted Victoria that she nsfield, “is to kiss Russia's feet, she will would very soon be, if she was not alot be a party to the humiliation of Eng ready, the “Dictatress of Europe.” nd and would lay down her crown,' But soon there was an unexpected read she added that the Prime Minister

At the General Election of 1880 ight, if he thought fit, repeat her words the country, mistrustful of the forward

the Cabinet. “This delay,” she ejacu- policy of the Conservatives, and carried ted, “this uncertainty by which, abroad, away by Mr. Gladstone's oratory, ree are losing our prestige and our posi- turned the Liberals to power. Victoria on, while Russia is advancing and will was horrified, but within a year she was e before Constantinople in no time! to be yet more nearly hit. The grand Then the Government will be fearfully romance had come to its conclusion. Lord lamed and the Queen so humiliated that Beaconsfield, worn out with age and he thinks she would abdicate at once. maladies, but moving still, an assiduous Be bold!" "She feels," she reiterated,

mummy, from dinner-party to dinnershe cannot, as she before said, remain the party, suddenly moved no longer. When Sovereign of a country that is letting it- she knew that the end was inevitable, she elf down to kiss the feet of the great seemed, by a pathetic instinct, to divest arbarians, the retarders of all liberty and herself of her royalty, and to shrink, with ivilization that exists.” When the Rus- hushed gentleness

, beside him, a woman ians advanced to the outskirts of Con- and nothing more. “I send some Osstantinople she fired off three letters in a borne primroses," she wrote to him with hay demanding war; and when she learnt touching simplicity, "and I meant to pay that the Cabinet had only decided to send you a little visit this week, but I thought the Fleet to Gallipoli she declared that it better you should be quite quiet and "her first impulse" was "to lay down the not speak. And I beg you will be very thorny crown, which she feels little sat- good and obey the doctors.” She would isfaction in retaining if the position of see him, she said, "when we come back this country is to remain as it is now.” from Osborne, which won't be long." It is easy to imagine the agitating effect “Everyone is so distressed at your not beof such a correspondence upon Beacons | ing well,” she added; and she was “Ever field. This was no longer the Faery; it yours very aff’ly, V. R. I.” When the was a genie whom he had rashly called royal letter was given him, the strange out of her bottle, and who was now in- old comedian, stretched on his bed of tent upon showing her supernal power. death, poised it in his hand, appeared to More than once, perplexed, dispirited, consider deeply, and then whispered to shattered by illness, he had thoughts of those about him, "This ought to be read withdrawing altogether from the game. to me by a Privy Councillor.” One thing alone, he told Lady Bradford, with a wry smile, prevented him. "If I 1“The old Jew" (Disraeli).

3. HISTORY History is a word to kindle the imagi- | to rule and those to be ruled. The nation. It suggests

Magna Carta that was wrested from

King John, the peasant revolt in Ger-old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago;

many, the French Revolution, and our

own struggle for independence are but a the interminable strife among those crude few phases of this great conflict. The stalwart peoples of the early centuries causes, results, and implications of this whom we almost blush to call our ances- eternal clash bulks large in world his tors; the chivalry of the Middle Ages; tory. the enthusiasm of the Renaissance; and The growth of industrialism has pro the social, political, and scientific progress duced conditions in which a third con of modern times.

flict seems inevitable. At least, no on To the student, however, it means more has yet offered the correct solution to the than this colorful pageantry. The re- problem of reconciling Capital and Labor counting of mighty deeds in accordance The one holds to its creed of brain work with the formula of Froissart's Chroni- risk, and large profits; the other is con cles is not sufficient for the modern his- tinually harping upon the drudgery of torian. He must search for a meaning manual labor, its indispensability to pub behind these events; he must delve into lic welfare, and oppression by the the causes upon which hang results, and moneyed classes. As a result, a permanent discern the motives that lie back of ac- program of equable hours, wages, and tions. He must face the cruelty of that working principles has never beer early individualistic period, the ignorance achieved. and hidebound dogmatism of medieval In Autobiography, Exposition may or times, the lax morality and unsanitary may not play a large part. If present municipal conditions of the years follow- to any great extent, it is usually directed ing the Revival of Learning, and the so- toward the interpretation of condition: cial corruption of our complex life of to- which the writer sees about him. The day.

biographer must employ Exposition not While engaged upon this task, the his- only in treating background, but also in torian must also take into account those studying the personality of his subject great frictions that have played such an It is the modern historian, however, wh important role in the grouping of circum- must depend most of all upon Exposition stances. First of all, there is what is | The critical method often places History often called the conflict between the more in the realm of Exposition than of sexes. This exists to-day just as surely Narration, for an intelligent reading pub as it did when Cleopatra wrecked An- lic is demanding reasons for events which tony's career and changed the course of once were sufficient unto themselves. Now empire. Competition between man and more than ever is it the duty of the his woman in the field of business and poli- torian to comprehend imaginatively the tics is growing keener year by year, and period he is to treat, to strip from his ac the influence of woman is of far more count all that is mere tradition or hear practical value than in the palmy days of say, and by illuminating the motives of romance when a knight asked nothing bet- men, the consciences of nations, and tht ter than to die in the lists wearing his underlying social, political, geographic lady's colors.

financial, and economic forces to suggest Strife between rulers and subjects has implicitly future policies and modes of existed as long as there have been those I thought and action.


JEAN FROISSART Jean Froissart (1337-1410) was a contemporary of Chaucer. He enjoyed the best educaon of his time, that of the Church, and traveled extensively. Because of his connection with le various courts of Europe he was able to view contemporary events from many angles. is historical method is gossipy rather than critical, but although his chronicles cannot be lied upon for facts, they give vivid pictures of fourteenth century warfare. The battle escribed in this passage occurred in 1346 when Froissart was eight years old.

The English, who were drawn up in it cleared up, and the sun shone very aree divisions, and seated on the ground, bright; but the Frenchmen had it in their n seeing their enemies advance, rose un- faces, and the English in their backs. auntedly up, and fell into their ranks. When the Genoese were somewhat in Chat of the princewas the first to do order, and approached the English, they D, whose archers were formed in the set up a loud shout, in order to frighten hanner of a portcullis, or harrow, and them; but they remained quite still, and he men-at-arms in the rear. The earls did not seem to attend to it. They then f Northampton and Arundel, who com- set up a second shout, and advanced a lithanded the second division, had posted tle forward; but the English never hemselves in good order on his wing, to moved. ssist and succor the prince, if necessary. They hooted a third time, advancing

You must know, that these kings, earls, with their cross-bows presented, and bearons and lords of France, did not ad- gan to shoot. The English archers then rance in any regular order, but one after advanced one step forward and shot their he other, or any way most pleasing to arrows with such force and quickness, hemselves. As soon

the king of that it seemed as if it snowed. When the France came in sight of the English his Genoese felt these arrows, which pierced lood began to boil, and he cried out to their arms, heads, and through their ariis marshals, "Order the Genoese for- mor, some of them cut the strings of their vard, and begin the battle, in the name of cross-bows, others Aung them on the God and St. Denis.” There were about ground, and all turned about and reifteen thousand Genoese cross-bowmen; treated quite discomfited. The French put they were quite fatigued, having had a large body of men-at-arms on narched on foot that day six leagues, horseback, richly dressed, to support the completely armed, and with their cross- Genoese. The king of France, seeing dows. They told the constable, they them thus fall back, cried out, “Kill me were not in a fit condition to do any those scoundrels; for they stop up our great things that day in battle. The earl road, without any reason. You would of Alençon hearing this, said, “This is then have seen the above-mentioned menwhat one gets by employing such scoun- at-arms lay about them, killing all they drels, who fall off when there is any need could of these runaways. for them." During this time a heavy The English continued shooting as vigrain fell, accompanied by thunder and a orously and quickly as before; some of very terrible eclipse of the sun; and be their arrows fell among the horsemen, fore this rain a great Alight of crows hov- who were sumptuously equipped, and, ered in the air over all those battalions, killing and wounding many, made them making a loud noise. Shortly afterwards caper and fall among the Genoese, so

that they were in such confusion they Edward, the Black Prince, then a lad of could never rally again. In the English

army there were some Cornish and Philip VI.

Welshmen on foot, who had armed them



selves with large knives: these advancing to march to the place where he saw thei through the ranks of the men-at-arms and banners displayed, but there was a hedg archers, who made way for them, came of archers before him. He had that da upon the French when they were in this made a present of a handsome black hors danger, and, falling upon earls, barons, to sir John of Hainault, who had knights and squires, slew many, at which mounted on it a knight of his, called så the king of England' was afterwards John de Fusselles, that bore his banner much exasperated. The valiant king of which horse ran off with him, and forced Bohemia was slain there. He was called his way through the English army, and, John of Luxembourg; for he was the son when about to return, stumbled and fel of the gallant king and emperor, Henry of into a ditch and severely wounded him Luxembourg: having heard the order of he would have been dead, if his page had the battle, he inquired where his son, the not followed him round the battalions lord Charles, was: his attendants an- and found him unable to rise: he had not, swered, that they did not know, but be- however, any other hindrance than from lieved he was fighting. The king said his horse ; for the English did not quit the to them: "Gentlemen, you are all my ranks that day to make prisoners. The people, my friends and brethren at arms page alighted, and raised him up, but he this day: therefore, as I am blind, I re- did not return the way he came, as he quest of you to lead me so far into the would have found it difficult from the engagement that I may strike one stroke crowd. This battle, which was fought with my sword.” The knights replied, on the Saturday between La Broyes and they would directly lead him forward; Crécy, was very murderous and cruel; and in order that they might not lose him and many gallant deeds of arms were in the crowd, they fastened all the reins performed that were never known. of their horses together, and put the king Toward evening, many knights and at their head, that he might gratify his squires of the French had lost their maswish, and advanced toward the enemy. ters: they wandered up and down the The lord Charles of Bohemia, who al- plain, attacking the English in small parready signed his name as king of Ger- ties: they were soon destroyed; for the many, and bore the arms, had come in English had determined that day to give no good order to the engagement; but when quarter, or hear of ransom from any one. he perceived that it was likely to turn out Early in the day, some French, Geragainst the French, he departed, and I do mans, and Savoyards, had broken through not well know what road he took. The the archers of the prince's battalion, and king, his father, had rode in among the had engaged with the men-at-arms; upon enemy, and made good use of his sword; which the second battalion came to his for he and his companions had fought aid, and it was time, for otherwise he most gallantly. They had advanced so would have been hard pressed. The far that they were all slain; and on the first division, seeing the danger they were morrow they were found on the ground, in, sent a knight in great haste to the with their horses all tied together.

king of England, who was posted upon The earl of Alençon advanced in regu- an eminence, near a windmill. On the lar order upon the English, to fight with knight's arrival he said, “Sir, the earl of them; as did the earl of Flanders, in an- Warwick, the lord Reginald Cobham, other part. These two lords, with their and the others who are about your son, detachments, coasting, as it were, the are vigorously attacked by the French; archers, came to the prince's battalion, and they entreat that you would come where they fought valiantly for a length to their assistance with your battalion, of time. The king of France was eager for, if their numbers should increase, they

fear he will have too much to do." The Edward III.

king replied, “Is my son dead, unhorsed,

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