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jould keep constantly in mind the wis- dom lies in the existence of autocratic om of interfering as little as possible in Governments backed by organized force, ir own preparation and in the equip- which is controlled wholly by their will, lent of our own military forces with the not by the will of their people. We have uty-for it will be a very practical seen the last of neutrality in such circumuty-of supplying the nations already at stances. ar with Germany with the materials We are at the beginning of an age in hich they can obtain only from us or by which it will be insisted that the same ur assistance. They are in the field and standards of conduct and of responsibility te should help them in every way to be for wrong done shall be observed among ffective there.

nations and their Governments that are I shall take the liberty of suggesting, observed among the individual citizens hrough the several executive depart-of civilized states. nents of the Government for the con- We have no quarrel with the German ideration of your committees, measures people. We have no feeling toward or the accomplishment of the several them but one of sympathy and friendship. bjects I have mentioned. I hope that It was not upon their impulse that their t will be your pleasure to deal with them Government acted in entering this war. is having been framed after very careful It was not with their previous knowledge thought by the branch of the Govern

or approval. ment upon which the responsibility of It was a war determined upon as wars conducting the war and safeguarding the used to be determined upon in the old, nation will most directly fall.

unhappy days when peoples were noWhile we do these things, these deeply where consulted by their rulers and wars momentous things, let us be very clear, were provoked and waged in the interest ind make very clear to all the world what of dynasties or of little groups of ambiour motives and our objects are. My tious men who were accustomed to use own thought has not been driven from its their fellow men as pawns and tools. habitual and normal course by the un- Self-governed nations do not fill their happy events of the last two months, and neighbor states with spies nor set the I do not believe that the thought of the course of intrigue to bring about some nation has been altered or clouded by critical posture of affairs which will give

them an opportunity to strike and make I have exactly the same thing in mind conquest. Such designs can be successnow that I had in mind when I ad- fully worked only under cover and where dressed the Senate on the 22d of Janu- no one has the right to ask questions. ary last; the same that I had in mind Cunningly contrived plans of decepwhen I addressed the Congress on the tion or aggression, carried, it may be, 3d of February and on the 26th of Feb- from generation to generation, can be ruary. Our object now, as then, is to worked out and kept from the light only vindicate the principles of peace and jus- within the privacy of courts or behind the tice in the life of the world as against carefully guarded confidences of a narselfish and autocratic power and to set row and privileged class. They are up amongst the really free and self- happily impossible where public opinion governed peoples of the world such a commands and insists upon full informaconcert of purpose and of action as will tion concerning all the nation's affairs. henceforth insure the observance of those A steadfast concert for peace can never principles.

be maintained except by a partnership of Neutrality is no longer feasible or de- democratic nations. No autocratic govsirable where the peace of the world is ernment could be trusted to keep faith involved and the freedom of its peoples, within it or observe its covenants. It and the menace to that peace and free- must be a league of honor, a partnership

them.

of opinion. Intrigue would eat its vitals that the intrigues which have more than away, the plottings of inner circles, who once come perilously near to disturbing could plan what they would and render the peace and dislocating the industries account to no one, would be a corruption of the country have been carried on at seated at its very heart. Only free peoples the instigation, with the support, and even can hold their purpose and their honor under the personal direction of official steady to a common end and prefer the agents of the Imperial German Governinterests of mankind to any narrow in- ment accredited to the Government of the terest of their own.

United States. Does not every American feel that as- Even in checking these things and trysurance has been added to our hope for ing to extirpate them we have sought to the future peace of the world by the won- put the most generous interpretation posderful and heartening things that have sible upon them because we knew that been happening within the last few weeks their source lay, not in any hostile feelin Russia ?1

ing or purpose of the German people Russia was known by those who knew toward us (who were, no doubt, as it best to have been always in fact demo- ignorant of them as we ourselves were) cratic at heart, in all the vital habits of but only in the selfish designs of a Gov. her thought, in all the intimate relation- ernment that did what it pleased and told ships of her people that spoke their its people nothing. But they have played natural instinct, their habitual attitude their part in serving to convince us at toward life.

last that that Government entertains no Autocracy that crowned the summit of real friendship for us and means to act her political structure, long as it has against our peace and security at its constood and terrible as was the reality of its venience. That it means to stir up enepower, was not in fact Russian in origin, mies against us at our very doors the inin character, or purpose, and now it has tercepted note to the German Minister been shaken and the great, generous Rus- at Mexico City is eloquent evidence.? sian people have been added in all their We are accepting this challenge of hosnative majesty and might to the forces tile purpose because we know that in such that are fighting for freedom in the a Government, following such methods, world, for justice, and for peace.

we can never have a friend; and that in Here is a fit partner for a league of the presence of its organized power, alhonor.

ways lying in wait to accomplish we know One of the things that has served to not what purpose, there can be no assured convince us that the Prussian autocracy security for the democratic Governments was not and could never be our friend is of the world. that from the very outset of the present We are now about to accept gauge of war it has filled our unsuspecting com- battle with this natural foe to liberty, and munities and even our offices of govern- shall, if necessary, spend the whole force ment with spies and set criminal intrigues of the nation to check and nullify its preeverywhere afoot against our national tensions and its power. We are glad, unity of council, our peace within and now that we see the facts with no veil of without, our industries and our false pretense about them, to fight thus merce.

for the ultimate peace of the world and Indeed, it is now evident that its spies for the liberation of its peoples-the were here even before the war began, and German people included—for the rights it is unhappily not a matter of conjecture but a fact proved in our courts of justice 2A note from Herr Zimmerman instruct

ing the German minister to form an alliance

between Mexico and Germany in the event Wilson was not alone in his premature of war between the United States and Ger optimism concerning the Russian revolution.

many.

com

f nations great and small and the privi- spirit of right and fairness because we act ege of men everywhere to choose their

without animus, not in enmity toward a ray of life and of obedience.

people or with the desire to bring any inThe world must be made safe for de- jury or disadvantage upon them, but only nocracy. Its peace must be planted upon in armed opposition to an irresponsible he trusted foundations of political lib- Government which has thrown aside all rty.

considerations of humanity and of right We have no selfish ends to serve. We and is running amuck. lesire no conquest, no dominion. We We are, let me say again, the sincere eek no indemnities for ourselves, no ma- friends of the German people, and shall erial compensation for the sacrifices we desire nothing so much as the early reëshall freely make. We are but one of tablishment of intimate relations of he champions of the rights of mankind. mutual advantage between us however We shall be satisfied when those rights hard it may be for them, for the time have been made as secure as the faith and being, to believe that this is spoken from the freedom of the nation can make them.

our hearts. Just because we fight without rancor We have borne with their present Govand without selfish objects, seeking noth- ernment through all these bitter months ing for ourselves but what we shall wish because of that friendship-exercising a to share with all free peoples, we shall, patience and forbearance which would I feel confident, conduct our operations as otherwise have been impossible. We belligerents without passion and ourselves shall, happily, still have an opportunity observe with proud punctilio the princi- to prove that friendship in our daily attiples of right and of fair play we professtude and actions toward the millions of to be fighting for.

men and women of German birth and I have said nothing of the Govern- native sympathy who live amongst us and ments allied with the Imperial Govern- share our life, and we shall be proud to ment of Germany because they have not

prove it toward all who are in fact loyal made war upon us or challenged us to to their neighbors and to the Governdefend our right and our honor.

ment in the hour of test. They are, The Austro-Hungarian Government most of them, as true and loyal Amerihas, indeed, avowed its unqualified in- cans as if they had never known any other dorsement and acceptance of the reckless fealty or allegiance. They will be and lawless submarine warfare adopted prompt to stand with us in rebuking and now without disguise by the Imperial restraining the few who may be of a German Government, and it has there- different mind and purpose. fore not been possible for this Govern- If there should be disloyalty, it will be ment to receive Count Tarnowski, the dealt with with a firm hand of stern reAmbassador recently accredited to this pression; but if it lifts its head at all, it Government by the Imperial and Royal will lift it only here and there and withGovernment of Austria-Hungary; but out countenance except from a lawless that Government has not actually en- and malignant few. gaged in warfare against citizens of the It is a distressing and oppressive duty, United States on the seas, and I take the gentlemen of the Congress, which I have liberty, for the present at least, of post-performed in thus addressing you. There poning a discussion of our relations with are, it may be, many months of fiery trial the authorities at Vienna.

and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful We enter this war only where we are thing to lead this great peaceful people clearly forced into it because there are no into war, into the most terrible and disother means of defending our rights. astrous of all wars, civilization itself

It will be all the easier for us to con- seeming to be in the balance. But the duct ourselves as belligerents in a high right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have To such a task we can dedicate our always carried nearest our hearts—for lives and our fortunes, everything that we democracy, for the right of those who are and everything that we have, with the submit to authority to have a voice in pride of those who know that the day has their own governments, for the rights and come when America is privileged to spend liberties of small nations, for a universal her blood and her might for the princidominion of right by such a concert of ples that gave her birth and hapfree peoples as shall bring peace and piness and the peace which she has safety to all nations and make the world treasured. God helping her, she can do itself at last free.

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T IS generally acknowledged that the the latter form, for the true artist can in

impulse to recount human experi- voke in his readers a state of mind that

ences, actual or devised, is as old as for the time being will make plausible he race. The reason that Narration what an unbiased judgment would reject. receded Exposition and Argumentation Witness all stories of the supernatural or s a literary form is not far to seek. Nar- the fabulous. One pronouncement may, ation is the result of direct observation however, be ventured : namely, that when f incident, and follows a definite time a writer deviates so far from the accusrder. In its pure form it entails no in- tomed mode of popular thinking as to erpretation and makes no judgment. insult the intelligence, the exercise of his The reader is left to draw his own con- art will be futile. Hobgoblins and failusions. It is true, however, that the ries one may accept with good grace-for nodern narrative is borrowing more and after all they concern a shadowy realm of nore the expository method. Thus we which we know little; but who can feel find history growing critical, and the convinced of the reality of a hero who novel and short story becoming analytic. single-handed subdues a host? The fal

Narration divides itself naturally into sity of such an incredible feat is demontwo large classes: (1) that which ad- strated daily by our human experience. heres strictly to events that have actually It may be added that Description, seloccurred, or Narration of Fact; and (2) dom employed by itself, finds its chief that which purports to tell what might function in supplementing Narration. conceivably have happened, or Narration Its pictorial nature is of infinite value in of Fiction.

securing vividness, atmosphere, local It is difficult, however, to set limits to color, and sheer beauty.

A. NARRATION OF FACT

IN “Truth of Intercourse" Stevenson spirit of the period. Narrative of Fact at scores the popular fallacy that “it is its best demands imaginative power of easy to tell the truth and hard to the autobiographer in his task of selftell a lie.” The idea we intend to con- revelation; of the biographer who seeks to vey rarely if ever exactly coincides with re-create a personality; and of the histhe impression we actually give. Thus torian who treats of significant events in Narration of Fact is not necessarily nar- large segments of society. ration of truth, for truth is no mere mat- These three fields-autobiography, biter of dates and facts. It can never be ography, and history-comprehend the achieved by reference to accepted authori- full scope of Narrative of Fact, for diaties alone. One may be able to recite ries and journals are autobiographical in the dates of every battle of the American nature; books of adventure and voyaging Revolution, name every Colonial states- are either autobiographical or biographiman and general, and trace Washington cal; and newspaper accounts of current from Cambridge to Yorktown without events are vignettes of contemporary hishaving the slightest understanding of the

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