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elles sont.' I find men victims of illu- who in a good deal of rattle had a grai sions in all parts of life. Children, or two of sense. He shocked the com youths, adults, and old men, ali are led pany by maintaining that the attribute by one bawble or another. Yoganidra, of God were two,-power and risibility the goddess of illusion, Proteus, or and that it was the duty of every piou Momus, or Gylfi's Mocking, for the man to keep up the comedy. And I hav Power has many names, is stronger than known gentlemen of great stake in th the Titans, stronger than Apollo. Few community, but whose sympathies wer have overheard the gods or surprised cold, -presidents of colleges and gover their secret. Life is a succession of les- nors, and senators,— who held themselve sons which must be lived to be under- bound to sign every temperance pledge stood. All is riddle, and the key to a and act with Bible societies and mission riddle is another riddle. There are as and peace-makers, and cry Hist-a-boy many pillows of illusion as flakes in a to every good dog. We must not carr snow-storm. We wake from one dream comity too far, but we all have kind im into another dream. The toys to be pulses in this direction. When the boy sure are various, and are graduated in come into my yard for leave to gathe refinement to the quality of the dupe. horse-chestnuts, I own I enter into Na The intellectual man requires a fine bait; ture's game, and affect to grant the per the sots are easily amused. But every- mission reluctantly, fearing that any mo body is drugged with his own frenzy, and ment they will find out the imposture o the pageant marches at all hours, with that showy chaff. But this tenderness is music and banner and badge.
quite unnecessary; the enchantments are Amid the joyous troop who give into laid on very thick. Their young life is the chari-vari, comes now and then a thatched with them. Bare and grim to sad-eyed boy whose eyes lacks the requisite tears is the lot of the children in the refractions to clothe the show in due hovel I saw yesterday; yet not the less glory, and who is afflicted with a ten- they hung it round with frippery romance, dency to trace home the glittering mis- like the children of the happiest fortune, cellany of fruits and flowers to one root. and talked of "the dear cottage where so Science is a search after identity, and the many joyful hours had Aown.” Well, scientific whim is lurking in all cor- this thatching of hovels is the custom of ners. At the State Fair a friend of the country. Women, more than all, are mine complained that all the varieties of the element and kingdom of illusion. Befancy pears in our orchards seemed to ing fascinated, they fascinate. They see have been selected by somebody who had through Claude-Lorraines. And how a whim for a particular kind of pear, and dare any one, if he could, pluck away the only cultivated such as had that perfume ; coulisses, stage effects and ceremonies, by they were all alike. And I remember which they live? Too pathetic, too the quarrel of another youth with the pitiable, is the region of affection, and its confectioners, that when he racked his wit atmosphere always liable to mirage. to choose the best comfits in the shops, in We are not very much to blame for our all the endless varieties of sweetmeat he bad marriages. We live amid hallucinacould find only three flavors or two. tions; and this especial trap is laid to trip What then? Pears and akes are good up our feet with, and all are tripped up for something; and because you unluck- first or last. But the mighty Mother ily have an eye or nose too keen, why who had been so sly with us, as if she felt need you spoil the comfort which the rest that she owed us some indemnity, inof us find in them? I knew a humorist sinuates into the Pandora-box of marriage 1"_that a state of nausea was a very disa
some deep and serious benefits and some greeable state because it made us see things
great joys. We find a delight in the as they are."
beauty and happiness of children that
makes the heart too big for the body. In Since our tuition is through emblems the worst-assorted connections there is and indirections, it is well to know that ever some mixture of true marriage. there is method in it, a fixed scale and Teague and his jade? get some just re- rank above rank in the phantasms. We lations of mutual respect, kindly obser- begin low with coarse masks and rise to vation, and fostering of each other; learn the most subtle and beautiful. The red something, and would carry themselves men told Columbus "they had an herb wiselier if they were now to begin. which took away fatigue"; but he found
'Tis fine for us to point at one or an- the illusion of "arriving from the east at other fine madman, as if there were any the Indies" more composing to his lofty exempts. The scholar in his library is spirit than any tobacco. Is not our faith none. I, who have all my life heard any in the impenetrability of matter more number of orations and debates, read sedative than narcotics? You play with poems and miscellaneous books, con- jackstraws, balls, bowls, horse and gun, versed with many geniuses, am still the estates and politics; but there are finer victim of any new page; and if Marma- games before you. Is not time a pretty duke, or Hugh, or Moosehead, or any toy? Life will show you masks that other, invent a new style or mythology, I are worth all your carnivals. Yonder fancy that the world will be all brave mountain must migrate into your mind. and right if dressed in these colors, which The fine star-dust and nebulous blur in I had not thought of. Then at once I Orion, "the portentous year of Mizar and will daub with this new paint; but it will Alcor," must come down and be dealt not stick. 'Tis like the cement which the with in your household thought. What peddler sells at the door; he makes broken if you shall come to discern that the play crockery hold with it, but you can never and playground of all this pompous hisbuy of him a bit of the cement which will tory are radiations from yourself, and make it hold when he is gone.
that the sun borrows his beams? What Men who make themselves felt in the terrible questions we are learning to ask! world avail themselves of a certain fate in The former men believed in magic, by their constitution which they know how which temples, cities, and men were swalto use. But they never deeply interest lowed up, and all trace of them gone. us unless they lift a corner of the cur- We are coming on the secret of a magic tain, or betray, never so slightly, their which sweeps out of men's minds all vespenetration of what is behind it. 'Tis tige of theism and beliefs which they and the charm of practical men that outside their fathers held and were framed upon. of their practicality are a certain poetry There are deceptions of the senses, deand play, as if they led the good horse ceptions of the passions, and the strucPower by the bridle, and preferred to tural, beneficent illusions of sentiment walk, though they can ride so fiercely. and of the intellect. There is the illuBonaparte is intellectual, as well sion of love, which attributes to the beCaesar; and the best soldiers, sea-captains loved person all which that person shares and railway men have a gentleness when with his or her family, sex, age, or condioff duty; a good-natured admission that tion, nay, with the human mind itself. there are illusions, and who shall say that 'Tis these which the lover loves, and he is not their sport? We stigmatize the Anna Matilda gets the credit of them. cast-iron fellows who cannot so detach
As if one shut up always in a tower, with themselves, as "dragon-ridden," "thun- one window through which the face of der-stricken," and fools of fate, with heaven and earth could be seen, should whatever powers endowed.
fancy that all the marvels be beheld be
longed to that window. There is the 1 Blundering characters in Howard's com
illusion of time, which is very deep; who edy The Committee (1670).
has disposed of it?-or come to the conof
viction that what seems the succession of and plough, vamp your old coats and hats, thought is only the distribution of wholes weave a shoestring; great affairs and the into causal series? The intellect sees that best wine by and by." Well, 'tis all every atom carries the whole of Nature; phantasm; and if we weave a yard of that the mind opens to omnipotence; that, tape in all humility and as well as we can, in the endless striving and ascents, the long hereafter we shall see it was no cotmetamorphosis is entire, so that the soul ton tape at all but some galaxy which we doth not know itself in its own act when braided, and that the threads were Time that act is perfected. There is illusion and Nature. that shall deceive even the elect. There We cannot write the order of the variis illusion that shall deceive even the per- able winds. How can we penetrate the former of the miracle. Though he make law of our shifting moods and susceptihis body, he denies that he makes it. bility? Yet they differ as all and nothThough the world exist from thought, ing. Instead of the firmament thought is daunted in presence of the yesterday, which our eyes require, it is toworld. One after the other we accept day an eggshell which coops us in; we the mental laws, still resisting those which cannot even see what or where our stars follow, which, however, must be accepted. of destiny are.
of destiny are. From day to day the But all our concessions only compel us to capital facts of human life are hidden new profusion. And what avails it that from our eyes. Suddenly the mist rolls science has come to treat space and time up and reveals them, and we think how as simply forms of thought, and the ma- much good time is gone that might have terial world as hypothetical, and withal been saved had any hint of these things our pretension of property and even of been shown. A sudden rise in the road self-hood are fading with the rest, if, at shows us the system of mountains, and last, even our thoughts are not finalities; all the summits, which have been just but the incessant flowing and ascension as near us all the year, but quite out of reach these also, and each thought which mind. But these alternations are not yesterday was a finality, to-day is yield- without their order, and we are parties ing to a larger generalization ?
to our various fortune. If life seems a With such volatile elements to work succession of dreams, yet poetic justice is in, 'tis no wonder if our estimates are done in dreams also. The visions of loose and floating. We must work and good men are good; it is the undisciplined affirm, but we have no guess of the value will that is whipped with bad thoughts of what we say or do. The cloud is and bad fortunes. When we break the now as big as your hand, and now it laws, we lose our hold on the central covers a county. That story of Thor, reality. Like sick men in hospitals, we who was set to drain the drinking-horn in change only from bed to bed, from one Asgard and to wrestle with the old folly to another; and it cannot signify woman and to run with the runner Lok, much what becomes of such castaways,and presently found that he had been wailing, stupid, comatose creatures,drinking up the sea, and wrestling with lifted from bed to bed, from the nothing Time, and racing with Thought,—de- of life to the nothing of death. scribes us, who are contending, amid these In this kingdom of illusions we grope seeming trifles, with the supreme energies eagerly for stays and foundations. There of Nature. We fancy we have fallen is none but a strict and faithful dealing at into bad company and squalid condition, home and a severe barring out of all low debts, shoe-bills, broken glass to pay duplicity or illusion there. Whatever for, pots to buy, butcher's meat, sugar, games are played with us, we must play milk, and coal. “Set me some great task, no games with ourselves, but deal in our ye gods! and I will show my spirit. privacy with the last honesty and truth. "Not so," says the good Heaven; "plod | I look upon the simple and childish vir
ues of veracity and honesty as the root the mother of the world. Dispel, O of all that is sublime in character. Speak Lord of all creatures! the conceit of is you think, be what you are, pay your knowledge which proceeds from ignorlebts of all kinds. I prefer to be owned ance.”
And the beatitude of man they is sound and solvent, and my word as hold to lie in being freed from fascinagood as my bond, and to be what cannot tion. je skipped, or dissipated, or undermined, The intellect is stimulated by the to all the éclat in the universe. This statement of truth in a trope, and the reality is the foundation of friendship, re- will by clothing the laws of life in illuligion, poetry, and art. At the top or at sions. But the unities of Truth and of the bottom of all illusions, I set the cheat Right are not broken by the disguise. which still leads us to work and live for There need never be any confusion in appearances; in spite of our conviction, in these. In a crowded life of many parts all sane hours, that it is what we really and performers, on a stage of nations, or are that avails, with friends, with stran- in the obscurest hamlet in Maine or Caligers, and with fate or fortune.
fornia, the same elements offer the same One would think from the talk of men choices to each new comer, and, accordthat riches and poverty were a great mat- ing to his election, he fixes his fortune in ter; and our civilization mainly respects absolute Nature. It would be hard to it. But the Indians say that they do not put more mental and moral philosophy
than the Persians have thrown into a sencare, always toiling, afraid of heat and tence: cold, and keeping within doors, has any advantage of them. The permanent in
Fooled thou must be, though wisest of the
wise: terest of every man is never to be in a
Then be the fool of virtue, not of vice. false position, but to have the weight of Nature to back him in all that he does. There is no chance and no anarchy in Riches and poverty are a thick or thin the universe. All is system and gradacostume; and our life—the life of all of tion. Every god is there sitting in his us-identical. For we transcend the cir- sphere. The young mortal enters the cumstance continually and taste the real hall of the firmament; there is he alone quality of existence; as in our employ- with them alone, they pouring on him ments, which only differ in the manifesta- benedictions and gifts, and beckoning him tions but express the same laws; or in our up to their thrones. On the instant, and thoughts, which wear no silks and taste incessantly, fall snow-storms of illusions. no ice-creams. We see God face to face He fancies himself in a vast crowd which every hour, and know the savor of sways this way and that and whose moveNature.
ment and doings he must obey: he fanThe early Greek philosophers Herac- cies himself poor, orphaned, insignificant. litus and Xenophanes measured their The mad crowd drives hither and thither, force on this problem of identity. Diog- now furiously commanding this thing to enes of Apollonia said that unless the be done, now that. What is he that he atoms were made of one stuff, they could should resist their will, and think or act never blend and act with one another. for himself? Every moment new changes But the Hindoos, in their sacred writ- and new showers of deceptions to baffle ings, express the liveliest feeling, both of and distract him. And when, by and by, the essential identity and of that illusion for an instant, the air clears and the cloud which they conceive variety to be. “The lifts a little, there are the gods still sitnotions, 'I am,' and 'This is mine,' which ting around him on their thrones,--they influence mankind, are but delusions of alone with him alone.
ON A PIECE OF CHALK!
THOMAS HUXLEY Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) was famous as the popularizer of Darwin's theory of evolution. By virtue of a vivid and luminous style which made weighty matter intensely interesting, he succeeded in acquainting the people as a whole with the new scientific discoveries and aroused a real interest and enthusiasm for scientific research. On a Piece of Chalk (1868), an excellent example of inductive reasoning, was a lecture delivered before the working-men of Norwich, England.
IF A well were to be sunk at our feet thickness of more than a thousand feet, in the midst of the city of Norwich, the the English chalk must be admitted to be diggers would very soon find themselves a mass of considerable magnitude. Nevat work in that white substance almost ertheless, it covers but an insignificant too soft to be called rock, with which we portion of the whole area occupied by the are all familiar as "chalk."
chalk formation of the globe, which has Not only here, but over the whole precisely the same general characters as county of Norfolk, the well-sinker might ours, and is found in detached patches, carry his shaft down many hundred feet some less, and others more extensive, than without coming to the end of the chalk; the English. and, on the sea-coast, where the waves Chalk occurs in north-west Ireland; it have pared away the face of the land stretches over a large part of France, which breasts them, the scarped faces of the chalk which underlies Paris being, in the high cliffs are often wholly formed fact, a continuation of that of the Lonof the same material. Northward, the don basin; it runs through Denmark and chalk may be followed as far as York- Central Europe, and extends southward shire; on the south coast it appears
to North Africa; while eastward, it apabruptly in the picturesque western bays pears in the Crimea and in Syria, and may of Dorset, and breaks into the Needles of be traced as far as the shores of the Sea the Isle of Wight; while on the shores of of Aral, in Central Asia. Kent it supplies that long line of white If all the points at which true chalk cliffs to which England owes her name of occurs were circumscribed, they would lie Albion.
within an irregular oval about three thouWere the thin soil which covers it all sand miles in long diameter—the area of washed away, a curved band of white which would be as great as that of chalk, here broader, and there narrower, Europe, and would many times exceed might be followed diagonally across Eng- that of the largest existing inland sealand from Lulworth in Dorset, to Flam- the Mediterranean. borough Head in Yorkshire-a distance Thus the chalk is no unimportant eleof over two hundred and eighty miles as ment in the masonry of the earth's crust, the crow Aies.
and it impresses a peculiar stamp, varying From this band to the North Sea, on with the conditions to which it is exthe east, and the Channel, on the South, posed, on the scenery of the districts in the chalk is largely hidden by other de- which it occurs. The undulating downs posits; but, except in the Weald of Kent and rounded coombs, covered with sweetand Sussex, it enters into the very foun- grassed turf, of our inland chalk country, dation of all the south-eastern counties. have a peacefully domestic and muttonAttaining, as it does in some places, a suggesting prettiness, but can hardly be
called either grand or beautiful. But on From Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Re
our southern coasts, the wall-sided cliffs, views by Thomas Huxley. Published by D. Appleton and Company. Reprinted by per
many hundred feet high, with vast needles mission.
and pinnacles standing out in the sea,