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American word for it, the English word out.” It is really not necessary to add is in every case better because it is shorter. the word "resources" to the expression He points to tram, for surface-car; and "on his own." A "tripper" is a wellto lift, for elevator. Still though it may defined character, and so is a "flapper, be a finer word, hoarding is not shorter a “nipper," and a "bounder.” There than billboard; nor is "dailybreader" had to be some word for the English shorter than commuter. I think we "nut,” as no amount of the language of break about even on that score.

John Milton would describe him; and This, however, would seem to be true: while the connotation of this word as where the same words are employed in a humor is different with us, the appellasomewhat different way the English are tion of the English, when you have come usually closer to the original meaning of to see it in their light, hits off the personthe word. Saloon bar, for instance, is age very crisply. To say that such a intended to designate a rather aristocratic one "talks like a ha'penny book” is, as the place, above the public bar; while the English say, “a jolly good job.” And a lowest "gin mill” in the United States hotel certainly is presented as full when it would be called a "saloon." I know an is pronounced "full up." A "topper" American youth who has thought all the would be only one kind of a hat. Very while that Piccadilly Circus was a show, well, then it is quite possible, we see, to like Barnum and Bailey's. With every be "all fed up," as they say in England, thing that is round in London called a with English slang. circus, he must have imagined it a rather Humorous Englishmen sometimes hilarious place.

rather fancy our slang; and make naive The English "go on" a good deal about attempts at the use of it. In England, for our slang. They used to be fond of instance, a man "gets the sack" when he quoting in superior derision in their pa- is "bounced" from his job. So I heard pers our, to them, utterly unintelligible a lively Englishman attracted by the baseball news. Mr. Crosland, to drag word say that so and so should "get the him in again, to illustrate our abuse of bounce." "the language," quotes from some tenth- In writing, the Englishman usually rate American author which is a way employs "the language.” He has his yelthey have had in England of judging our low journals, indeed, which he calls literature-with the comment that "that "Americanized” newspapers. But crude is not the way John Milton wrote.' and slovenly writing certainly is not a Not long ago Mr. Crosland became in- thing that sticks out on him. What a volved in a trial in the courts in connec- gentlemanly book reviewer he is always! tion with Oscar Wilde, Lord Alfred We have here in the United States perDouglas and Robert Ross. He defended haps a half dozen gentlemen who review himself with much spirit and considerable books. Is it not true that you would cleverness. Among other things he said, get tired counting up the young English as reported in the press: "What is this novelists who are as accomplished writgame? This gang are trying to do me

our few men of letters? The down. Here I am

a poor man up Englishman has a basketful of excellent against two hundred quid (or some such periodicals to every one of ours. And amount) of counsel.” Well, that wasn't in passing it is interesting to note this. the way John Milton talked, either. When we are literary we become a lit

The English slang for money is a pleas- tle dull. See our high-brow journals! ant thing: thick'uns and thin'uns; two When frolic we are a little, well, quid, five bob; tanners and coppers. And rough. The Englishman can be funny, they have a good body of expressive and even hilarious, and unconsciously, concolorful speech. "On the rocks" is a foundedly well bred at the same time. neat and poetic way of saying "down and But he does have a rotten lot of popular

ers

as

we

across

illustrated magazines over there com- those who say caun't when they can't do pared to ours.

it unconsciously. That is, over here. In When you return from a sojourn of Britain, perhaps, it is just as well to several months in the land of "the lan- make a stagger at speaking the way the guage" you are immediately struck very Britains do. When you accidentally step forcibly by the vast number of American- on an Englishman's toe, it is better to isms, by the richness of our popular say “I'm sorry!” or simply "sorry,” than speech, by the “punch" it has, and by the to beg his pardon or ask him to excuse place it holds in the printed page at home. you. This makes you less conspicuous, In a journey from New York I turned

and so

more comfortable. And when over in the smoking-car a number of you stay any length of time you fall papers I had not seen for some time, naturally into English ways. Then among them the New York Evening when you come back you seem to us, to Post, Collier's, Harper's, Puck and the use one of the Englishman's most delightIndianapolis News. Here, generally with ful words, to "swank" dreadfully. And out quotation marks and frequently in the in that is the whole story. editorial pages, I

came

these Mr. James declares that in the work among innumerable racy phrases: noth- of two equally good writers you could ing doing, hot stuff, Right O!, strong- still tell by the writing which was that arm work, some celebration, has 'em all of the Englishman and which that of the skinned, made at him, this got him in bad, American. The assumption of course is scared of, skiddoo, beat it, a peach of a that where they differed the American place, get away with the job, been stung would be the inferior writer. Mr. James by the party, got by on his bluff, sore at prefers the English atmosphere. And that fact, and always on the job. I the Englishman is inclined to regard us in learned that the weather man had put our deviation as a sort of imperfect reover his first frost last night, that a town production of himself. What is his is we passed had come across with a six- ours, it is true; but what's ours is our teen-year-old burglar, and that a discred- own. That is, we have inherited a noble ited politician was attempting to get out literature in common. But we write less from under. Perhaps it is not to be and less like an Englishman all the while. wondered at that the Englishman fre- | Our legacy of language brought over in quently fails to get us.

the Mayflower has become adapted to our You note a change in the whole at- own environment, been fused in the mosphere of language. A pronounced "melting-pot,” and quickened by our own instance of this difference is found in pub- life to-day. Whether for better or for lic signs. You have been seeing in Eng- worse it may be either—the literary lish conveyances the placards in neat type touch is rapidly going by the board in posted about which kindly request the modern American writing. One of the traveller not to expectorate upon the floor newer English writers remarks: "A few of this vehicle, as to do so may cause in- carefully selected American phrases can convenience to other passengers or spread very swiftly kill a great deal of dignity disease, and so forth and so on. Over and tradition." here:

Why should we speak the very excelDon't Spit!

lent language spoken in the tight little This Means You!

isle across the sea ? In Surrey they

speak of the “broad Sussex" of their This is about the way our signs of this neighbors in the adjoining county. Is it kind go. Now what about all this? I exactly that we caunt? Or that we just used to think many persons just returned don't? Because we have an article more from England ridiculously affected in

to our purpose, made largely from English their speech. And many of them are- material, but made in the United States ?

II. ARGUMENTATION

A

RGUMENTATION plays a great- of reasoning that an allegation is true, or er rôle in our lives than many of us that a policy is right, expedient, or nec

realize: not the technical kind, per- essary. Thus Columbus tried to prove haps, that is preceded by the construction to his contemporaries the fact that the of briefs according to some stereotyped earth is round; Thomas M. Osborne subform, such as is required of lawyers, mitted evidence to support his opinion statesmen, and college freshmen; but the that prison reform is needed; and many a offhand mental debate involved in all ou

our

politician has sought to convince himself decisions, and the oral fencing which re- and others that a program, though morsults from the necessary frictions of our ally doubtful, is expedient and justified daily routine. Not an hour passes but we by conditions. are called upon to prove our statements or Evidence is necessary either to prove a to defend our opinions. Indeed, all our fact or to support an opinion. It is of two actions are the result of certain judgments kinds: direct and indirect. made often so promptly that the con

Direct Evidence is the supporting sciousness of the feat is lost. Were it not statements of witnesses, and may be either for this rational control based on silent oral or written. When special stress is and expeditious argumentative processes, laid upon the statements of some witour deeds would have no significance, and ness because of his accredited knowledge we should be lunatics.

of a certain subject, this is called arguIn the field of writing as well, much of ment from authority. We must judge our argument is not confined to formal the worth of all testimony by at least articles with such captions as: Resolved, three tests. First, has the witness the That the ex-Kaiser should be brought be physical and mental capacity to testify fore an international tribunal; or, Does concerning the question? You would prohibition prohibit? Often it is inci- scarcely credit the statements of a pardental or of such a nature that it is firmly tially deaf man concerning the exact interwoven with the entire fabric of the wording of an overheard conversation, or thought. Carlyle in Heroes and Hero the judgments of a corner-grocery orator Worship and Emerson in "Illusions” are upon the new tariff. Second, is the witnever exhaustingly polemic, for they are ness morally sound ?—that is, would he more interested in the details of their ex- consciously distort the truth? And position than in their thesis. Even when finally, is there any personal feeling that the chief aim of a book or essay is the ac- might unconsciously bias the judgment of ceptance by the reader of a well-defined the witness ? Northern and Southern proposition, that fact in itself by no means historians of the Civil War, without the precludes an interesting treatment and slightest intention of deceit, sometimes a pleasant style.

draw very different conclusions from the Although often considered a subdivi- same incidents, according to their resion of Exposition, Argumentation, be- spective points of view. cause of its importance, is usually treated 2. Indirect Evidence is furnished by a separately. Like Exposition it deals with peculiar arrangement of circumstances, ideas; but unlike Exposition it subjects and is usually called Circumstantial Evithose ideas to certain tests, and endeavors dence. Van Wyck Brooks in his Ordeal to convince some one by a logical process of Mark Twain undertakes to prove that

138

I.

the philosophical despair and cynicism Inductive Reasoning means arguwhich peer through the humor of our ing from a number of specific instances to "divine amateur" were due not to pose a general law that will include them all. but to the unnatural repression of his cre- Thus by observation and testimony we ative impulse, leaving in a state of ar- know that every human being in the past rested development only the playboy in has come at last to his death. Conseletters, the humorous entertainer of the quently we may frame a general law, All masses, never the true satirist nature had men are mortal. It is by this type of designed him to be. This hypothesis of reasoning that all science advances. So maladjustment-a revolutionary view of Newton reasoned from the fall of an apMark Twain based on Freudian principle to the law of gravitation, and Huxples of psychoanalysis--Mr. Brooks sub- ley from an examination of chalk deposstantiates by finding in certain influences its to the conclusion that certain portions in Mark Twain's early life a sufficient of inhabited Europe were once submerged cause for the suppression of his artistic

in the ocean. genius: the narrow Puritanism of his 2. Deductive Reasoning means argumother, the crushing hostility to any ing from an accepted general law to one signs of individualism among the pioneers specific instance: All men are mortal. of the Nevada gold fields, the bourgeois Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates smugness and morality of his Hartford is mortal. This form of major premise, associates, and the continual insistence on minor premise, and conclusion is termed respectability by his wife. These cir- a Syllogism. Macaulay employs Deduccumstances (says Mr. Brooks) explain tive Reasoning in his essay on “Milton," how so great a spirit remained discon- arguing that since it is right for men to tentedly degrading the beauty he could fight for freedom even though rebellion not himself achieve.

brings with it many evils, therefore the Circumstantial Evidence alone is conduct of Milton in championing the scarcely dependable. A different set of cause of the Commonwealth was justificonditions may fit our hypothesis. But able and praiseworthy. when Mr. Brooks adduces Direct Evi

Practically all our argument involves dence in the shape of anecdotes by such both kinds of Reasoning. When we say men as

as Howells and Paine, and that a certain man will surely die, we are number of Mark Twain's own letters, basing our conclusion not merely on Demany written not to be delivered but duction, but on the inductive process by merely to let off steam, in which the which we arrived at the major premise, humorist gives vent to his bitterness and All men are mortal. distrust in himself and the race, the argu- An error in reasoning is called a Fallacy. ment is materially strengthened, for both Very often success in destructive argument the Direct and the Indirect Evidence depends upon the disputant's ability to agree.

discern these fallacies in his opponent's Before definitely committing one's self reasoning. In Induction the most comto a judgment upon the truth or falsity mon Fallacy is that of hasty generalizaof the original proposition, one would first tion following observation of too few speconsider the Evidence submitted, balance cific instances. If we should say, “The one set of ideas against another, interpret new moon is spilling water; there will be the known facts, draw certain inferences, a wet month," it would be evident we and finally reach a decision. This thought had made no thorough observation of process brought into play after the Evi- weather conditions, but were simply voicdence has been submitted is termed Rea- | ing a popular superstition. soning.

Sometimes our observation itself is at Reasoning may be divided into two fault. The scientist who thought he had kinds: Inductive and Deductive. produced spontaneous germination of life in a test tube of sterilized matter-a dis- Hitherto we have been dealing largely covery which would have bridged the gap with definitions. The most important between the era of slime and the era of constructive step in any argument is the life in the world's history—was suddenly determination of the Issues. The Issues refuted by another scientist who demon- are those points of dispute around which strated conclusively that the matter in the discussion will rage most hotly. They the test tube had not been properly steri- are common both to the affirmative and to lized and still contained life.

the negative, and in a formal brief are In Deduction the most common error is always put in the form of questions. the assumption of an incorrect major Consider, for instance, Woodrow Wilpremise. If we start from the general son's address to Congress recommending statement that all who say "it don't" are the declaration of a state of war between uneducated and vulgar, we can prove the United States and the Imperial Gersome amazing things about certain college man Government. He discusses three professors. As in Induction, correct ob- chief issues which may be formulated servation is also necessary before we thus: frame our minor premise. Otherwise there is no connecting link between the

1. Is the wanton and wholesale major premise and the conclusion. Fur

destruction of the lives of nonthermore, special care must be taken

combatants through the ruthless that the first term of the conclusion

submarine policy of Germany a be contained in the smaller term of

challenge to the sense of justice of the major premise. Carlyle in Heroes

the American people? and Hero Worship makes use of a false

2. Is armed neutrality on the part of syllogism that may be formulated thus:

the United States still practicaAll great men

ble? are sincere. Mahomet was sincere. Therefore Mahomet was a

3. Can peace be maintained by any great man. The only legitimate conclu

means other than a partnership sion one can draw from the original state

of democratic nations among ment is that if Mahomet had been great,

whom the United States shall of he would have been sincere.

necessity have a place? It may be wise at this point to distin

The capacity for perceiving these cruguish between Argument and Persuasion.cial points of discussion is the first requiThe purpose of Argument is to convince.

site demanded of any who engage either When a disputant appeals to the emotions

in formal debate or in ordinary controof his hearers rather than to their intel

versy. The second is the reasoning power lects, he is trying to persuade. Persua

to advance by certain logical steps from sion is not Argumentation in its best sense, an accepted proposition to one not yet but none the less it often proves effective granted. as the florid perorations of certain lawyers for the defense amply illustrate. It

1 For a model brief see G. K. Pattee, Pracis justifiable, however, when used to ex

tical Argumentation, The Century Company, cite human interest in sound argument.

pages 171-183.

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