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method are mildly, but not offensively polemical. The author commends it “to his brethren in the Church and ministry” as an effort “to promote positive Christian truth.” It contains six chapters on the following subjects: “The Problem of Life,” “ Mind and Brain," "The Physiology of Consciousness," “ Automatism and Freedom," “ Heredity,” and “The Biblical Psychology.” We sympathize heartily with the aim of the writer, but we cannot accept his views on most subjects where his treatment touches upon the sciences of biology and psychology.

For example, the “outline of argument” (as given to us by the author himself) for the first chapter is as follows: “Biological researches respecting living matter shows that it has powers or functions entirely different from non-living matter.” This statement we might accept after striking out the word “ entirely" and inserting the word “certain” before the words “ powers and functions." “The similarity of these powers indicates similarity of nature and is a bond of unity.” The meaning which Dr. Witbe attaches to these words we do not understand.

“ The cause of these powers (the cause of the causes ? of the phenomena we call “ life") is inexplicable by any materialistic theory; but all living beings of which we have any scientific knowledge are certainly material structures." “ The existence of a spiritual psyche in each organism manifesting itself by vital functions is sufficient explanation. The removal of the psyche or bodily death, is speedily followed by molecular death.” On the contrary, we maintain that the theory of a “spiritual psyche” in every living thing explains nothing whatever, but greatly complicates our difficulties. When, for example, I cut a moving centipede in two, do I with one stroke of the knife create two “spiritual psyches

out of one, viz: a front-part psyche and a psyche of the hinder portion of the divided organism ? Moreover, since as Dr. Wythe expressly admits, the merest speck of bioplasm has all these powers and functions of life, we are compelled to postulate for each such speck, animal as well as vegetable, a spiritual psyche to sit in it withal, and manifest itself by these aforesaid vital powers and functions. This certainly involves an immense multiplication of individual spiritual principles, all to assist in the explanation of certain powers and functions," common to every living speck with every other. Since death is the removal of their psyches, every lapse of each speck of bioplasm from its vital molecular condition involves the cessation or transmigration of a soul; and every propagation of a new cell from another cell by fission requires the creation of a spiritual psyche peculiar to it.

Our attitude of alternating assent and consent toward the propositions of the other chapters is similar to that taken toward the propositions of the chapter on the problem of life. Yet the book will have a certain interest and value for those who can read it with some independence of opinion derived from previous knowledge. This is just the class which will not, we fear, give much attention to it; while the brethren in the Church and ministry to whom it is addressed will be likely to be led by it into wrong views on matters of biological science.

GREEK PHILOSOPHY.*_" The following work,” says its author, “bad its beginning in a series of essays written for one of the ethico-religious periodicals of the country.” It does not profess to be based upon extended examination of the sources, though it bears out the claim that "not a little original study has been given to the task.” Zeller is, of course, the principal authority for the conclusions taken.

The book is well balanced and judicious; it divides the entire space appropriated to the subject (296 pages) amongst the different thinkers and eras, with an admirable regard for the real value, magnitude of influence, need of exposition, and abundance of resources, belonging to each. It would be difficult to find a better compendious treatise for beginning the study of Greek Philosophy.

DEDUCTIVE Logic. The interest in Formal Logic which is taken in the great English universities, as compared with the interest in experimental and speculative psychology, seems to us in this country somewhat remarkable. This little book aims to be as thoroughly as possible representative of the present state of logic at the Oxford Schools. It is as densely packed with distinctions and definitions as a book can well be. Under a lively and thoroughly competent teacher, who could clothe the framework with attractiveness and mental quickening, it might be successfully used as a text-book. Otherwise, the average beginner in logic would find it very dry.

* A Brief History of Greek Philosophy. By B. C. BURT, M.A. Boston: Ginn & Co. 1889.

+ Deductive Logic. By ST. GEORGE STOCK, M.A. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1888.

PRIMARY EDUCATION.*_To an account of her experience in teaching a child of some five years, and an argument with Misə Youmans over the question “whether children should begin the study of botany by the flower or the leaf,” Dr. Jacobi here adds a lengthy essay, already published, on the “Place for the Study of Language.” The result is a stimulating and improving booklet of some 120 pages. The study of language in beginning education is deprecated—even so far as the learning to read and to write. But the study of language later on is highly commended, chiefly on psycho-physical grounds. Students of the art of teaching will find various things to criticise, both favorably and adversely, in this volume.

KEDNRY'S TREATISE ON “ CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE”+ embraces discussions of the whole range of problems which find place in Systematic Theology with a view to exhibiting the harmony and unity of the various Christian doctrines. It is a learned and devout treatment of the great themes of Christian thought and life. The insolubleness of many problems in theology is freely acknowl. edged, while, at the same time, candid efforts are made for their utmost possible elucidation. The author disclaims the method of demonstration for the establishment of theological truth and seeks to vindicate the validity of faith as a basis for its reception. While faith is to be distinguished from knowledge, it is contended that the faith which receives the Christian mysteries is a rational act and is thus “the keystone of the whole arch of Christian truth.” The contents of the treatise will amply repay study, but, as is so frequently the case with such works, we find the style of the book somewhat heavy and cumbrous.

* Physiological Notes on Primary Education and the Study of Language. By MARY PUTNAM JACOBI, M.D. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1889.

+ Christian Doctrine Harmonized and its Rationality Vindicated. By JOHN S. KEDNEY, D.D., Professor in Seabury Divinity School. Two vols. Pp. 383, 422. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 1889.

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