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Several chapters of the work treat in a very interesting way of the development of the child's intellect as connected with its learning the use of language. Expert students will find very suggestive the parallelism which Preyer draws between the various defects and inaccuracies of the child's speech and those which originate in connection with the different forms of aphasia. Only the aphasic patient has lost some one or more of the several cerebral and psychical processes which enter into full and complete speech, whereas the child has not yet gained them.

The chapter on the “Development of the Feeling of Self” in the mind of the child is interesting, but seems to be scarcely so full and satisfactory as we have reason to expect from the treatment of other subjects, even less important. Two of the three Appendices give cases of the psychical development of acephalic or microcephalic children, and reports of the experiments to determine the first perceptions of those early blind persons whose eyes have been successfully couched.

On the whole, the publishers of this “International Education Series ” have done no better service through any of the series than through these two volumes of Professor Preyer on the mind of the child.

MEMORY.*_This book cannot be considered one of the most valuable in the series to which it belongs. It is indeed exceedingly painstaking. It abounds in citations from a great variety of works,—there being, according to Dr. Harris in his “Editor's Preface,”

," “ more than one thousand well chosen citations from nearly two hundred authors.” A considerable portion of the book is taken up with detailed descriptions of the nervous system; but most of this is not particularly pertinent to the main subject of the book; nor is the physiological treatment of memory done in the modern method. Strangely enough, not one of the “ nearly two hundred authors” cited is a recognized authority in this branch of the subject.

The style of the work is, at least in places, very awkward, as the following instance may show. “But while every one must thus of necessity possess some degree of memory, there are few or none that possess it in that degree that they might and should do.”

* Memory, What it is and How to Improve it. By David Kay. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1888.

THE BEGINNINGS OF Ethics.*_This handsome volume is the product of the studies of the author in connection with his preparation for the class-room during many years. It gives abundant evi. dence of his fidelity in reading and thought. His standpoint is in general that of Reid and the Scotch philosophers, the most of whose distinctive positions he adopts and defends with unflinching pertinacity. The work also gives evidence of a pretty wide range of reading, and is enriched with copious and pertinent extracts and references. The practical applications and suggestions are in good taste and in a good spirit, and at the same time fresh and suggestive. The proportions of the several divisions of the treatise are well adjusted, and a good deal of matter—including valuable historical statements and criticisms—is packed in a very attractive volume. It will meet the wishes of many instructors as a principal or supplementary text book, and will interest the general reader. We commend the work most cordially to the many who are interested in this important department of philosophical research and practical application.

The Expositor's Bible.t-Attention has already been called in this Review to the plan of this series of popular, yet scholarly, expositions. The two volumes which have thus far appeared in 1889, Dr. Plummer on the Pastoral Epistles and Mr. Smith on Isaiah (Chs. 1.-XXXix)., are creditable representatives of the series. Each contains an introduction in which the critical and historical questions connected with the books to be explained, are briefly set before the reader. Dr. Plummer defends the genuineness of the Pastoral Epistles. Mr. Smith holds, we infer, the view carrent among critics that Chaps. XL.-XLVI, are not the work of the prophet Isaiah, but belong to the period of the Captivity. The author has based his exposition upon a careful study of the original text and an examination of the sources which have been opened in recent years for the better historical understanding of Old Testament literature. We heartily commend the volumes of this series to pastors who have not leisure for the study of more elaborate critical treatises, both as aids to interpretation and as a help to expository preaching.

* The Beginnings of Ethics. By Rev. CARROLL CUTLER, D.D., formerly President of Western Reserve College. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son. 1889.

The Pastoral Epistles. By Rev. ALFRED PLUMMER, D.D. Isaiah, Chs. I-XXXIX, By Rev. Geo. A. SMITH, M.A. A. C. Armstrong & Son. New York, 1889.

PURVES' LECTURES ON JUSTIN MARTYR* were delivered on the L. P. Stone foundation at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1888. They constitute an argument, drawn from a comprehensive survey of Justin's life and writings, for the historical character of the New Testament literature and for the acceptance by the early church of the evangelical system of doctrine. The work is characterized by candor and learning, and makes an interesting and instructive chapter in early church history as well a useful contribution to apologetics. It is provided with a full index and is presented in an attractive form by the publishers.

FINDLAY'S EXPOSITION of GALATIANS. - We have in Professor Findlay's exposition of Galatians the latest number of the series of popular commentaries to which we have already directed attention. We have examined the volumes of this series as they appeared with peculiar interest because they are prepared in pursuance of an end most desirable, but by no means easy to attain, viz : the presentation of the result of scholarly and critical Biblical study in a form adapted to popular use. We regard the efforts of the various authors thus for as highly successful and none more so than Professor Findlay. His expositions combine, in excellent proportion, trustworthy and critical exegesis with popular and striking presentation. His work shows on every page that he has mastered the Epistle, but knows how to hold in reserve the processes by which he mastered it for himself, and give the reader the well considered results in an attractive and practically suggestive form. This book seems to us to closely approach the ideal of popular exposition. Not a chapter if it is too abstruse or technical to be delivered as a sermon. It would make an epoch in preaching, and in Bible-study if the ministry of to-day would vigorously take up expository preaching in the spirit and upon the methods of such volumes as this. The work would, indeed, be laborious. Much careful study would be called for before sermon preparation could begin, but great gains would be made by work of this kind in acquaintance with the Bible and in strong grasp upon evangelical truth. The tendencies of our time

* The Testimony of Justin Martyr to Early Christianity. By GEORGE T. PURVES, D.D, Pastor First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburg, Pa. A. D. F. Randolph & Co. New York. pp. 302.

+ The Expositor's Bible. The Epistle to the Galatians. By Rev. Prof. G. G. FINDLAY, Headingley College, Leeds. A. C. Armstrong & Son, New York, 1889.

pp. 461.

are towards such an effort. The Bible is to be studied with better intelligence, more thoroughness and keeper interest in the near future than it has ever been. We regard this series of expositions as both a sign of the times and as a useful stimulus and almost a model to aid the work of opening the deeper meaning of the Bible to the people in ways that will not discourage and dismay them, but attract and interest them.


DURBIN'S LIFE.*—The subject of this memoir was one of the most gifted preachers of the Methodist church of this country. The preparation of the memoir was evidently a work of love and is well worthy of the man whom it honors. We do not look for severe critical judgment, for excessive caution or reserve or for measured terms of praise. The author is an enthusiastic admirer and he pours forth his laudation without stint. Estimated by the severest literary standard it may be pronounced extravagant. The literary quality of the work is defective and at times distasteful. But we do not fail to catch much of the author's enthusiasm for the subject of his eulogy and we are constrained to rejoice and to be grateful that such preachers as Dr. Durbin are possible in an age like this and that the noble church that has done so much for this country is still able to produce them. One of the interesting and valuable features of the volume is its discussion of homiletical principles in the light of their concrete manifestation in the subject of this memoir. It in fact succeeds in becoming a valuable contribution to homiletical literature. It is to be cordially commended to students of homiletics as containing some of the most helpful and fruitful suggestions about preaching to be found. They are the more valuable that they interpret and generalize the concrete facts of Dr. Durbin's preaching.


Through DEATH TO LIFE.T-There is always a chance for new contributions to the work of interpreting and enforcing the teach

* The Life of John Price Durbin, D.D., LL.D.; with an Analysis of his Homi. litic Skill and Sacred Oratory. By JOHN A. ROCHE, M.D., D.D.; with an Introduction by RANDOLPH S. FOSTER, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1889.

+ Through Death to Life. Discourse on St. Paul's great Resurrection Chapter By REUEN Thomas, D.D., Harvard Church, Brookline, author of “Divine Sovereignty," "Grafenburg People,” etc. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Company, 50 Bromfield street. London: James Clarke & Company, 13 Fleet street. 1888.

ings of the Apostle Paul. There is especially a chance for new applications of those teachings from the pulpit. Paul is a teacher of Christianity whom the church will not outgrow, and each age with its special intellectual and spiritual difficulties needs him to set it aright. The testimony of Paul with respect to the resurrection of Christ and with respect to the significance of that fact is of priceless value. It is new and fresh for every age of the church. Dr. Thomas has entered a field that has been thoroughly worked. The great minds of the church have preceded him. There is but little new work to be done upon the fifteenth chapter of first Corinthians. But Dr. Thomas is a preacher of no inconsiderable merit, and he brings to us in the volume before us an exposition and application of Paul's teaching of the crowning fact of historic Christianity that are worthy of our attention. We have here ten sermons of an expository sort. They bear the marks of thorough study. They are suggestive and practical and helpful in an eminent degree. Their ethical and spiritual tone are appropriate to the grand and solemn themes discussed. In literary form they are interesting and impressive. We have here the old truths of the Christian centuries, but they are wrought into a form sufficiently distinctive to sanction their publication.


THE ART AMATEUR completes its tenth year with the May number. It is almost impossible to overestimate the good influence this able magazine has had in popularizing art in this country. The current issue, which is a fair sample of the general quality of The Art Amateur, is filled with all kinds of artistic designs, mostly full working size, and practical articles on Oil, Water-Color, Tapestry and China Painting, besides others on Wood Carving and Church and Home Embroidery. The strong point of the magazine is its very practical tone. One of the colored plates, which accompany each number, is a superb study of “Tulips,” by Victor Dangon; and for china painters, besides other designs in black and white (with directions for treatment for all), there is a charming Fern Decoration in green and gold for a tea service. The well illustrated articles for the benefit of young artists who wish to become illustrators for the magazines are continued, and the Home Decoration and the Amateur Photography departments are well kept up. The National Academy

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