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didactic, penitential, and so forth. This might be remedied to some extent by an index.

Uniformity of order is helpful, especially when novelties are proposed for adoption; but without any obvious reason, the Gloria Patri which follows the responsive reading in the morning, precedes it in the evening. In the morning the people stand, but in the evening they kneel when saying the Lord's Prayer.

The selection of Scriptures adapted for the use of the choir, covers a good deal of ground and is accompanied by references to a large number of musical compositions of less difficulty. It is well for choirs and congregations to learn that good anthem music is both cheap and abundant, and to encourage the use of such pieces as come within the ability of the singers, and at the same time are capable of being used for religious effect.

No doubt any minister who should introduce this volume as a help to worship, would find occasion to interline, and substitute, and amend; but even so, its use would certainly tend, in many churches, to secure a deeper interest in the forms of worship and impart a new sense of the liberty of each congregation to choose for itself in what way it will offer its prayers and its praises to God.



AND WEIDNER'S INTRODUCTORY NEW TESTAMENT GREEK METHOD.*_This treatise is designed for those who begin their Greek studies with the New Testament. Its method is inductive throughout. The Gospel of John is used to supply the material for instruction and practice. Upon this plan the student begins reading as soon as he has learned the alphabet. The method may be illustrated from the first Lesson. The subject-matter of the exercise is the first verse of the Gospel of John. The text is given with an interlinear transliteration, enabling the student to practice himself upon the pronunciation of the words until he can accomplish it with ease. Next under “Notes” each word is taken up and fully explained. The form,

* An Introductory New Testament Greek Method, together with a Manual containing Text and Vocabulary of the Gospel of John and Lists of Words, and the Elements of New Testament Greek Grammar. By W. R. HARPER, Ph.D., Professor in Yale University, and R. F. WEIDNER, D.D., Professor in Augustana Theological Seminary, Rock Island, Ill. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1889. Pp. 520.

accents, breathings and other details are thus explained as fully as the pupil can understand them at the commencement of his work. Under a third heading are given “Observations” of a more general character. They embrace the principles and usages of the language which the phenomena of the verse studied illustrate, care being taken to enter upon no points which would necessarily be unintelligible to the learner at this early stage of his study. Under a fourth head is given the vocabulary of the verse in which the forms by which the words are ordinarily referred to, are also given, e. g., the Nominative singular of nouns; present, first person singular of verbs, etc. Under V. are found very simple exercises, Greek into English, English into Greek, which constitute a valuable practice in handling the words learned in the simplest constructions. Lastly, there are given “Topics for Study” which are really requirements for the review of the main points learned in the lesson preceding.

The book consists of three Parts. The First is the “ Method," covering progressive exercises upon the whole Gospel of John, arranged upon the plan described. The Second Part has the Text of John with a literal translation of Chaps. I.-IV.; also a Vocabulary and Word Lists based upon a classification of the words according to the frequency with which they appear in the Gospel. This enables the pupil to commit to memory the commonest words and thus develop reading-power most rapidly. Part III. is entitled “Elements of New Testament Greek Grammar,” and contains the matter common to Greek Grammars under the heads of Orthography and Etymology with explanations of peculiarities of form and usage in the New Testament. This Grammatical Part stops short of Syntax. It was, perhaps, the opinion of the authors that this branch of the subject was too large and difficult to find place in so elementary a handbook.

The method pursued in the construction of the book necessitates considerable repetition. The points which are explained under “ Observations" in each lesson, must find place again in the Grammatical Part. We do not speak of this as a fault. It may not be so.


may be best to present a second time in the Grammar in a more compact and systematic form the various points which are explained in concrete application from Lesson to Lesson. This method, which we think is somewhat unusual in man. uals of this sort, considerably increases the size of the book which seems to us a large one considering the fact that it aims to em

brace only the elements of the Greek language, excluding Syntax, as illustrated in the Gospel of John. It is beyond question desirable that such an elementary work should be as brief as is consistent with a clear explanation of the matter to be learned.

We are much interested in those efforts which are now making to popularize and render attractive the study of language, particularly the study of the “dead" languages. We hope and believe that these methods will do much to render these languages living in a true and important sense. Books of " Method” like that before us do not seem to us to be so new in principle as they are supposed to be. The study of language by a progressive inductive method is no novelty. They are rather new in the mode of applying the inductive principle. They prescribe more fully the course of procedure to be pursued in the work of both teacher and pupil. Formerly more was left to the genius of the teacher for teaching and in the very numerous cases where that genius was wanting, the result was a gloomy one. In books like this everything is indicated. There is full explanation of every detail as the study proceeds. The teacher cannot well pass anything over which is necessary to be learned. If the pupil learns as he goes he cannot easily become confused. Such handbooks of method are, therefore, a great safeguard against a careless and unclear teaching and learning. Many a man in the use of such a“ Method ” might teach with a good degree of success, who, with the simple grammar in hand, would be a failure. We welcome this volume, not only for the reasons indicated, but because we are glad to believe that there is an increasing demand among those who have not had the advantage of classical study, for a handbook which shall enable them to fit themselves to study the New Testament in the original language. Such a demand augurs well for more intelligent and thorough Bible study.


PROF. HARPER'S “ ELEMENTS OF HEBREW SYNTAX."*—A book should be judged by what the author has attempted, by the need of the book, and by the excellence of execution. The author modestly states his purpose to be “to classify and arrange these results (already achieved in the line of syntactical investigation) in such a way as to bring them within the reach of that large class of Hebrew students who need and desire a knowledge of

* Elements of Hebrew Syntax. By W. R. HARPER, Ph.D., Professor of Semitie Languages, Yale University. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1888.

them but have little time in which to obtain it."

When one considers that there is no book current in the English language which meets this need, the work undertaken is amply justified. A greater measure of success has been accomplished than might be expected in the first edition wrought out in the midst of so many and distracting labors as fall to the lot of this author. When one considers that the time allowed to most students of Hebrew is brief, it is seen that it is necessary that the text-book be such that it can be used with as little labor as possible, that its statements of fact shall be absolutely perspicuous and involve no loss of time in their mastery. If we may judge from the character of the text-books in existence this necessity has never seemed to occur to previous writers on Hebrew Syntax. This text-book is divided up into paragraphs and minor divisions so that the teacher can refer the pupil to the exact statement which he wishes the pupil to master. We may now add that the result accomplished, as well as the need, has justified this work of Prof. Harper's. Another point in respect to which this volume should be judged is in regard to the amount of matter in it. It contains more matter than a teacher can expect a class to master during the time ordinarily allotted to the study, yet there is little in the book of which a teacher would not be glad to make use within that time. On the other hand there is one noteworthy omission, namely, of a systematic statement of the more important uses of the prepositions. In the present state of Hebrew Lexicography there is the greater need of such a statement. It is to be noted that the author gives many other details which might be relegated to the Lexicon. Why discriminate against the prepositions ? Doubtless the book will be reproduced sooner or later and we trust that this omission will not be allowed to remain.

Every teacher could make out a list of details which he would like to have added. To gratify them all would swell the book beyond the aim of the author. We hope that this book is the forerunner of a full and exhaustive discussion of syntax. The book is in accord with the prevalent judgment of Hebrew scholarship regarding the meaning of the Hebrew tenses. There is a due recognition of the circumstantial clause, a subject unknown to those who have studied only the text-books current in America ten years ago. Under this head a statement of the various ways of translating the clause should have been added to that of the character of the clause. In the section on the Nominative Abso

lute there is need that the name Casus Pendens should have been mentioned as another name of the same construction. This designation is the only one which is strictly accurate.

In the general arrangement of matter two suggestions are made: first, that the first general subject treated in any syntax should be the sentence as a whole, for this is the unit of thought; second, that in Hebrew Syntax the verb occupies the place of first importance among the parts of the sentence. Two errata have come to the eye of the writer. Under Sec. 22-3-a and 26-2-a cross ref. erence to Sec. 24 is given which ought to be Sec. 23, again the statement in Sec. 29-2-a, Rem. d is disproved in Ruth 2.9. See also Müller's Hebrew Syntax, Sec. 116, latest issue. There are four indices to this book, of which the first three are excellent and adapted to enable a solitary student to master the book and Hebrew Syntax at once. The fourth index might well have been modeled on the Hebrew index in Prof. Harper's Elements of Hebrew. Life is too short to look through 19 references in the vain hope to find a reference to the frequent use of Lamedh after the passive verb. It would be unjust to dwell on these minor defi. ciencies in such a way as to obscure the reputation which this book deserves to have, namely, that of being at present the most serviceable compend of Hebrew Syntax which can be put into hands of the student.


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