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said: “I have often heard and read the term 'Lost Cause' applied to the embodiment of the principles for which the Southern people fought; but I ask you, was ever a Cause really lost when supported by such truth and devotion and which had received such a baptism of blood ? I have lived long enough to know that the minority is often the party that triumphs in the end. We may have been overthrown by physical force, but principles still live.” Dr. Palmer is a leader of religious thought in the South ; and he appears here, in consistency with his position elsewhere, as a defender of the rebellion and a promoter of disunion.

The unseemly philippic which Gen. Rosser, a dashing cavalry-man of the Confederacy, uttered, a few days since, at a reunion of Confederate veterans in Baltimore, in which he pretended to scorn the valor of Northern men as contrasted with that of Southern men, was in the same line of gratuitous provocation. It was as weak in substance as it was foolish in expression, and it united the insolence of bravado with the gall of defeat. The press has claimed that Gen. Rosser was drunk; but he was drunk only as he was drunk when he led his troopers against the Union lines which he could not pierce. He had forgotten that, on the collapse of the Confederacy, he sought subsistence at Northern hands, by honorable work for a Northern corporation. He was able to live and to prosper because the Nation which he attempted to destroy was powerful and progressive. He claims to be loyal now to the Union; but a genuine loyalty does not agree well with such acrimonious invective.

Another demonstration of a similar character occurred on the 4th of March of this year, at the annual meeting of the Association of Veteran Confederate States Cavalry. At that meeting, Miss Winnie Davis, daughter of Mr. Jefferson Davis, was received as the “Daughter of the Confederacy,” and was greeted with the “rebel yell” by the standing veterans. One of the speakers, eulogizing one of the Confederate armies, used this language: “That name is not a dead thing of the past, nor is it only a living memory; it means the dedication of all that is precious, all that is noble, all that is holy, on the altar of our country; it means that the men who died, the women who suffered, the children who wept, were sacrificial offerings in that Cause of all that is great and good; it means that those who survive are animated by the same ennobling aspirations."

A Confederate General in speaking of the Confederate dead, also said: “It is consolation to their comrades that they died in a just and honorable Cause. While the rains of heaven have washed the blood from battle-fields, yet as time passes the deeds of glory in which that blood was given must grow brighter.” He added: “When the future comes the historian will accord to the Southern Confederate as much praise as to the Northern hero.” Although the treason is not quite as rank in these utterances as in the more indiscreet speech of General Rosser and Mr. Jefferson Davis, we regret such exhibitions of it as perpetuating hostility and alienating people who should be one.

Such harangues, kindling the old hostilities, inflaming the passions that ought to slumber, and handing down to the children the enmities born of defeat, are full of harm for the country. When such a spirit shows itself in social convocations, on the floors of Congress, and in religious assemblages as well, when the North is denounced, and the South is apotheosized, for the part which each took in the war, there will be challenged rejoinder and retaliation. The passionate debates in Congress have been provoked by Southern arrogance. The line between the sections is perpetuated by Southern hostility. The factions which hold the people apart are kept up and are inflamed by the invectives of Mr. Jefferson Davis and the applause of the men and women who worship his malevolent shadow.

Such an exhibition presents to the country a melancholy and disturbing fact. It shows how a great people may be misled. It gives resurrection to feuds which Providence has buried. It hinders the fraternity which the whole Nation needs. The North truly desires unification and brotherhood. It would lavish its generosity upon the South as a part of the common country, and heal with kindness the wounds of the war. It would reach out its right hand to clasp with patriotic fervor the right hand of its Southern brother.

It would open its left hand with uncounted wealth to secure the best gifts for its less fortunate fellow-citizens. It would swell with men and means the tide of prosperity which should flow over the fairest of our States, which are rich with their undeveloped wealth and the munificent treasures of nature. It would rejoice in the progress and power of its gallant and brilliant brethren of the glorious South-land, even as when “one member is honored, all the members rejoice with it.” It would give its heart, with warm affection and sympathy, to those whom it met in the melancholy ordeal of battle, and would conquer with love those whom it conquered with arms. therefore, to be deeply regretted that there is a party of arrogance and folly at the South which assumes to dominate the more conservative and friendly people, and which wishes to keep alive bitterness and separation, in the delusive hope that in some way, at some time, the Lost Cause may be regained. As long as Mr. Jefferson Davis shall live he will be the idol of a class of Southern females who detest the name and the fact of the Union, whose "people" are the South, and whose “nationis the old Slave States.

BURDETT HART.

It is,

UNIVERSITY TOPICS.

CLASSICAL AND PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF YALE

COLLEGE.

noun.

Feb, 26, 1889. Mr. F. F. Abbott read a paper upon the use of prepositions in Tacitus. He showed that of the new uses to which the prepositions are put by Tacitus some are traceable to Greek influence, others to Vergil and Horace, to the influence of colloquial forms of expression, and to a desire for novelty, variety and brevity. The prepositions which are followed by the accusative were divided for discussion, into seven groups. The first group was made up of ad, adusque, apud and in. Of the Ciceronian uses of ad to denote “motion towards,” “presence after motion,” and “simultaneous occurrence," the first has been extended by Tacitus; in the second use apud takes the place of ad, while the third use has been in general restricted but developed along a particular line. Ad is also frequently used to denote result, purpose, and tendency, where it is interchangeable with in. Usque is found before and after ad and once after the

Apud is used before all words of place with the force of in and the ablative, and is also found in expressions of time. In often expresses result; it is used two or three times after verbs of rest, and with words of adoption and marriage. In group II., made up of citra, extra, juxta, and ultra, the use of citra and extra is orthodox in the Annals, but they have the force of sine in the minor writing of Tacitus. Juxta is used once metaphorically, ultra with the force of “later than.” In the third group, made up of cis, infra, intra, inter, and supra,-intra equals in with ablative. Inter has four new uses. It appears after verbs of motion, as a substitute for an adverbial clause, in certain expressions of time, and in the expression inter paucos. Supra is used of rank. In group IV. were put ante, post, pone, sub, and penes. Ante and post are used of rank; penes is followed by the names of things. In group V. were erga, adversus, contra and secundum. Erga and adversus occur with a favorable, unfavorable, and colorless meaning; erga is used with persons and things, adversus of persons

generally. Adversus also indicates a means of protection against and stands for de. In group VI. were ob, per, and propter. Ob denotes internal cause, and represents cause.

Per indicates a point of time, also cause and manner. In group VII. were super and circa. Super stands for praeter, and circa equals de.

Five classes of expressions were considered together at some length, viz : the use of prepositions (1) before neuter adjectives, (2) in phrases modern in form, (3) in expressions of time, (4) before neuter pronouns, (5) in certain stereotyped phrases. Other peculiarities were noticed as follows: the omission of the preposition, and zeugma in its use, which were attributed to a desire for brevity; anastrophe and the interchange of prepositions with other constructions, which were attributed to a desire for variety. The paper then showed that as regards the use of prepositions, Latin was gaining in flexibility while losing in dignity and accuracy, and that this loss was less noticeable in Tacitus because of his clearness of thought.

Tuesday, March 12, 1889. Dr. W. H. Parks read a paper on

CORAËS, THE PHILOLOGIST AND STATESMAN. Little is generally known about Coraës, although he was a very striking character, and his influence was great, both in preparing the way for the Greek Revolution of 1821 and in determining the form of the modern Greek language, which is a compromise between the ancient Greek and the ordinary language of conversation in his time.

Adimantius Coraës was born in Smyrna, April 27th, 1748. His love for study was aroused by a prize which he won at school. He went to Amsterdam in 1772 in the interests of his father's business; here he stayed six years. Then, after a four years' residence at Smyrna, he went to Montpellier, in France, to study medicine. Graduating here, he went to Paris in 1788. The French Revolution increased his desires for the regeneration of his native land. He now gave up the study of medicine and devoted himself to the welfare of his countrymen, refusing profitable offers of employment and choosing to live in poverty for their sake. He appears before the world in two aspects: the philologist and the patriot. Some of his philological works are: a translation of Strabo, for which Napoleon gave him a pension, and editions of Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Isocrates, and Plutarch ; also

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VOL. XIV.

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