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of James IV. It granted the degrees of M.B. and M.D., residence being requisite. It had an efficient medical school, with the peculiar advantage of a chair of medical logic endowed by a private practitioner, and ably filled by Dr. Ogston. It had no museum. This university was by the Scotch Act amalgamated with University and Marischal College, Aberdeen, and the combined university grants medical degrees after one year's residence in that seat of learning, and another in some other university, For many years it was held up to scorn, with St. Andrew's, as a warehouse for the sale of doctor-dubbing parchment. It has a full complement of chairs, but its museum and medical library are said to be imperfect.

The University of Glasgow was founded by Pope Nicholas on the request of James II. in 1450. It grants the degree of M.D., and residence for one session is insisted on. Since 1815, relying on the power of its charter to grant degrees in quavis alia licita facultate, it has granted the title of “magister chirurgiæ," which did not allow practice within the legally assigned limits of the College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, or Faculty of Glasgow; but this restriction was removed in 1850. The aniversity has a medical school of considerable repute, an extensive library, and a museum of 5,635 specimens, including those prepared by William Hunter.

University of Edinburgh was chartered, in 1582, by James VI., but did not grant medical degrees till 1705. It has since then capped 6,631 doctors, the greatest number having been in 1827, when 160 graduated. The average for the last ten years is 75. The practice of giving gold medals for the best inaugural theses is most useful. It requires residence for two "anni medici," the other two to be spent in some university-or two of them may be passed in the school of the College of Surgeons in Ireland. - It acquired the greatest fame some years ago, and was almost the only place available for graduation in the United Kingdom for those who




were not members of the Established Church. Some thirty-five years ago its fame was so great that on the establishment of University and King's Colleges in London, Liston, Syme, and Fergusson were selected from it for surgical chairs. It now attracts about 400 students in medicine annually.

The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, in 1681, received a charter from Charles II., granting powers limited altogether to Edinburgh city, and prohibiting it from giving degrees or engaging in medical education; but it has a library of 10,000 volumes and a museum of 2,740 specimens.

The Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, on 1st July, 1505, had “a seill of cause granted by the town counsell of Edinburgh to the crafte of surgery and barbouris.” This was confirmed in the year after by James IV. One of its first rules was that no surgeon should take an apprentice who could not read and write. years this was the only body in Scotland licensed to distil spirits. It confers fellowships and licences. For many years it had the exclusive privilege of supplying surgeons in a great part of Scotland, but, to its credit be it recorded, it never sought to sustain the monopoly. Its museum contains 6,356 preparations.

The Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, was instituted by James VI., A.D. 1599, for the purpose of licensing surgeons (medicine not being mentioned) for the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, and Burgh, and the barony of Dumbarton ;” but its powers were amplified by an Act in 1850, and its licence is registered and generally received as evidence of qualification.

For many


The King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland, founded in 1660 by Dr. John Stearne, was chartered by Charles II. A.D. 1667, and again by William and Mary, A.D. 1692. Its governing body consists of




visitors, president, vice-president, and four censors. It confers the ranks of fellow and licientiate, which do con. fer exclusive privileges. The examination still is the mediæval method, by vira roce question only. As a school it is united with T.C.D. Its library is rich in the older authors. It has no museum.

The Apothecaries' Hall was chartered in 1791, by the Act procured by the famous Dr. Lucas, member for Dublin. Any unprejudiced inquirer will find that this document confers no title whatever to practise physic or surgery, and was alone for the protection of the apothecary in exercising his legitimate duty, that of compounding drugs. It is controlled by a governor, deputygovernor, and court of examiners, fifteen in all, who are likewise shareholders, as the company engage in the commerce of drugs by wholesale and retail. Apprenticeship or pupilage with an English (not an Irish surgeon) is enforced, and before this a full matriculation examination. It has not yet been reported upon by the Medical Council, as the delegates chosen would not attend. The final examination is most searching and demonstrative. In 1853, when the last list was printed, there were 1,372 licentiates, but as only about 30 pass yearly now, the profession is dying out. We have at page 73 suggested some means for improving the scientific trade of phar. macy.

During ten years, ending 1856, 3,037 persons obtained the London and Dublin Apothecaries' licence after apprenticeship (the fee having been said by high authority to average £150). He learns what might, in the establishment of a dispensing chemist, be learned in as many months as he spends years. But the Act of Parliamı nt is evaded, and he often spends four of the five years at lectures.

The University of Dublin, of which Trinity is the only College, was founded by Queen Elizabeth A.D. 1591, under the title of “The College of the Holy and



Undivided Trinity, near Dublin.” It has been further empowered and enriched by many succeeding sovereigns. James I. gave it the power of electing two members of parliament (the constituency numbering but six). The representation was reduced to one member at the Union, but raised again by the Reform Bill. It was connected with the School of Physic by George III. 10, c. iii. 84, and professors were appointed to deliver lectures conjointly. An Act to amend this was obtained last session, which gave power to make regulations. That made, restricting lectures to three weekly, is most unwise. The actual governing body is the Provost and seven Senior Fellows, with a Senate, which, although originally contemplated and its revival recommended by the commissioners of 1851, only very lately came into operation. During the first quarter of the present centary, the examination was the sole test for medical degrees, evidence of school or hospital work not being demanded. It grants the following medical and surgical titles-Lic. Med., Lic. Surg., M.B., M.D., and M.Ch. The two first named should be abolished, as at Cambridge. The expense for the M.B., M.Ch., and previous B.A. is £192 18s. Its educational regulations are admirable, with the exception of those relating to physiology, for the only arrangement apparently made for the purpose of teaching that extensive subject by the aid of chemical appliances, microscopes, and experiments is, that all these topics are to be despatched, along with pathology, in the forty lectures of a summer professorship. Its medical museum has 3,000 preparations, and its library is very large, a copy of nearly every book published in the United Kingdom being obtained free. There are some restrictions as to the admission of students.

Queen's University.-In 1845 the government of Sir Robert Peel-believing that the educational wants of the Irish people were not sufficiently supplied by Trinity


IRISH LICENSING BODIES. College, and to free dissenters from any disabilitiesfounded the Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Cork, and Galway, and they were opened for public instruction in 1849. The Queen's University was founded in the following year. It grants degrees and diplomas in the various faculties which other universities grant, except in theology. It is governed by a chancellor, vicechancellor, and senate of twenty-four. Last year power was given to convocation—that is, professors and graduates of two years standing-to fill six places on the senate according as they become vacant. Two of the senate belong to the medical, six to the legal profession. A medical graduate contested the first vacancy unsuccessfully, because he declared himself in favour of extending the university in accordance with the supplemental charter; but one of our profession will certainly be chosen at the election announced for April. On the London University senate nearly half, and on the committee of convocation, according to bye-law, half belong to the medical profession.

The examiners in medicine, surgery, midwifery, materia medica, law, and political economy are chosen, every two years, usually from members of the professions in Dublin ; in all other subjects the examinations are conducted by the three college professors of each subject. It is enforced that a candidate should have matriculated and attended one-third of the medical lectures (which occupies one of the four years required) in a Queen's College. It divides the four years into two periods, each issuing in an examination.

Between 1840 and 1862 fifteen persons were dubbed M.D.'s by the Archbishops of Canterbury, one of the recipients having had no other medical qualification, and having been a notorious quack. The Medical Council most properly refuse to register the title, as they should in the instance just now to be stated.

Honorary degrees in medicine can be registered, but

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