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MODERN LANGUAGES. literature, and the art of composition, including precis writing. Its value cannot be exaggerated, and ignorance of it has produced many failures before the examining boards for public services, where it is thoroughly tested. In the drawing up of reports and medico-legal opinions ignorance of the common rudiments of an English education is too often lamentably displayed. Every student should also cultivate a bold legible style of handwriting, an advice which the highest authorities have publicly urged. It would be well if the study of logic was insisted on as a subject of preliminary, not as it was for a short time by the army service, during professional education. This science admirably trains the mind to habits of thought and reasoning, the most estimable of the faculties:

“ He most lives “Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." Want of acquaintance with the principles of logic is often displayed in the deductions which are made from recorded facts or statistical tables in medicine. The study of ethics, too, is an appropriate training for him who must hereafter possess the keenest sense of honour, the feelings and infirmities of men being confided to him.

That exact science, mathematics, is indispensable to any educated man, and its uses to the scientific student of medicine could be illustrated by numerous examples. Mathematics and mathematical physics were Boerhaave's chief means of physiological research, and a mathematician of our own day, the Rev. Dr. Haughton, has adduced a theory of muscular force which may be usefully applied in the construction of locomotive machines. The famous Auguste Comte asserts that astronomy is a fit subject by which to train the medical student's mind. The elements of the natural sciences, including natural philosophy, chemistry, and natural history, should be mastered before studying medicine, as their importance is very great, and their advanced investigation cannot be attempted in the

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schools unless the rudiments have been acquired. To many students educated in Dublin, the instructions of the late Dr. Lover have been of great service, although delivered only to school-boys. To the medical man especially, as the faculty of observation is trained, but indeed to man in every walk of life, the study of natural objects and the laws which govern them, is of use : “Study the ways of nature, and be wise.” Pliny urged their special importance to the medical man: Rerum naturoe contemplatio quamvis non faciat medicum ; aptiorem tamen medicinæ reddit atque perfectum. Such studies could not be better advocated than in the words of the prospectus of the “Surgical Society," published in 1831 : “It is a great mistake to suppose that the study of those branches of knowledge not immediately connected with the management of disease, is incompatible with the pursuits of one engaged in the active practice of his profession. Boerhaave, the most celebrated practitioner of the period in which he flourished, was one of the most distinguished of chemists and botanists; Haller, in the midst of his multifarious pursuits, could find leisure to collect, arrange, and catalogue the plants of his native country; and Linnæus himself proved that his devotion to botany did not incapacitate him from the successful practice of his profession when he found it necessary. Reference to the works of Albinus, Camper, Hunter, Rudolphi, Caius, Meckel, and many others, confirms the truth of this position." Natural history renders precise the observing powers of the mind, and exercises the faculties of analysis and synthesis most completely. If our licensing bodies were to insist on the possession of such knowledge before students commenced, schools would be stimulated to teach it. If they did teach chemistry and botany efficiently, the licensing bodies should be satisfied by the students passing full examinations in these subjects at the same time as the literary subjects were examined in. This would remove the necessity of

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having chairs, and the expensive appliances connected therewith, in every medical school, for the applied facts of chemistry might be taught by the teachers of physiology and forensic medicine, and medical botany by the lecturer on materia medica.

There is yet another study which must be advocated, even at the risk of appearing to over-burthen the student's energies-namely, the principles of drawing. Its merest rudiments enable the instructor to explain difficult points

' more intelligibly than verbal description could ever do, and the learner acquires, even by a very elementary knowledge of art, a more thorough insight into medical subjects so capable of illustration. The practitioner can likewise represent any unusual object which he may meet with. Many of our ranks have exercised this talent without interfering with their more immediate duties. It has been said, “ Had not Sir Charles Bell been a surgeon or a physiologist, he might have been a great artist, so admirable were his drawings, so exquisite his perception of the beautiful. This talent was with him a favourite, and might be cited as an instance of the ruling passion strong in death,' for he was engaged in sketching the gay scenery of Worcestershire but a few hours before bis decease."

It may be asserted that the expense of so extensive a preliminary education would exclude from the profession all but the sons of the wealthy ; but the case of students for the church of all denominations disproves this; they most usually come from the less wealthy classes, but they must go through a most prolonged literary course before beginning their theological studies.

An arts course and subsequent graduation in & university is of course of great value. years, however, the system of private examinations after term, or “term-trotting,” as it was called in the old universities, depreciated very much the respect which an arts degree should carry with it. Unless students

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commenced an arts course early (Bacon entered Cambridge at fourteen), it is not advisable that they should spend four years at it, for these are the very years when the mind is most capable of learning the practical duties and kind of knowledge which make the good physician. It is made compulsory in many universities, and in France the more appropriate degree of bachelor of sciences is necessary, and the University of London has established such a degree. However, the expense of time and money, especially at present, when the requirements of the public services encourage such rapid education, will prevent the general adoption of a previous university course. Besides, the preliminary studies enumerated above constitute a far more serviceable and appropriate introduction to medicine than the arts curricula of some universities. It is very much to be regretted that scholarships and other valuable endowments are not given in the older universities for proficiency in natural science, instead of being wholly restricted to classics and mathematics. The forcing on the student of several subjects represses the mental development of youths who would prove superior in one or two; and after a general matriculation greater choice ought to be allowed. Before the student commenced his professional studies, or-considering the disabilities youths labour under from the want of intermediate schools in many parts of this country-during his first year, the matriculation examination should be passed. It should embrace the foregoing subjects, as now included in the list of the London University, which is as follows: 1, Classics, including the Greek and Latin languages, with grammar, history, and geography; 2, The English language, English history, and modern geography; 3, Mathematics; 4, Natural philosophy; 5, Chemistry; 6, Either the French or the German language.

All this may seem too much to expect, but anyone who has had the opportunity of examining even the pupils



of a national school throughout Ireland will see otherwise. This examination should take place about four times 8-year-say in October, January, April, and July—and should be by questions, both on paper and viva voce. If considered desirable, officers might be sent to the principal towns in the provinces, to set written questions prepared for the purpose in the metropolis, where all the answers might be examined together. The institution of an honour division, and perhaps some other distinctions, would be desirable.

I regard it as the greatest defect in medical education that the student is left desolate and friendless, without anyone to guide and control his studies-truly, “sheep without a shepherd.” He is also destitute of the benefit of good example by being allowed to reside wherever he may chance to be led ; to attend to or to neglect his duties as he may think fit. This system is manifestly full of danger in leading to a most desultory kind of study and conduct. The only remedy is the establishment of a proper system of collegiate residence and discipline, such as the alumni of all university colleges enjoy. The chief colleges or schools should erect plain yet commodious buildings, within which students should reside (an exception being made in the case of those who lived with parents or relatives, or in other approved places). They would thus be under the supervision of a board constituted of the lecturers, and more immediately under the care of tutors residing in the college, analogous to the plan of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin. These officers should have a limited number of pupils, placed by their parents under them for instruction and control. A warden should have the government of each establishment, and every student should sign a solemn declaration of obedience to rules. А moderate quarterly charge (say £6) for two furnished rooms, would repay the authorities of the educational institution, who should alone undertake it, as no private

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