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allow amount angle iron arranged bars become blow-out bolts bottom butt joints carbonic acid cast iron cause cent cleaning coal combustion consequence copper corrosion crown cubic foot cylinder defect deposit diameter of rivet draught edge effect efficiency end plate equal escape evaporative experiments explosion externally fired boilers factor of safety feed water feed-water feet firebox flame flange flat flue fracture fuel furnace plates fusible plugs gases gauge grooving gusset heating surface increased incrustation internal Lancashire boilers lap joints leakage length lever liable locomotive boilers material ordinary overheating pipe pitch plug pounds prevent punched quantity render resistance ring seams rivet holes safety valves screwed shell side soda sometimes square inch stays steel strain sufficient temperature tensile strength thickness of plate tion tons per square tubes usually vertical boilers water-tube boiler weight whilst wrought iron
Página 409 - Fresh coal, which has been weighed, should now be fired. The ash-pits should be thoroughly cleaned at once after starting. Before the end of the test the fires should be burned low, just as before the start, and the fires cleaned in such a manner as to leave the same amount of fire, and in the same condition, on the grates as at the start.
Página 405 - In preparing for and conducting trials of steamboilers, the specific object of the proposed trial should be clearly defined and steadily kept in view. II. Measure and record the dimensions, position, etc., of grate and heating surfaces, flues and chimneys, proportion of air space in the grate surface, kind of draught, natural or forced.
Página 411 - In tests for purposes of scientific research, in which the determination of all the variables entering into the test is desired, certain observations should be made which are in general unnecessary for ordinary tests.
Página 406 - ... calculation of the results of the test corrected accordingly. Wherever possible, the test should be made with standard coal of a known quality. For that portion of the country east of the Alleghany Mountains, good anthracite egg coal or Cumberland semibituminous coal may be taken as the standard for making tests. West of the Alleghany Mountains and east of the Missouri River, Pittsburg lump coal may be used.
Página 411 - ... for purposes of scientific research, in which the determination of all the variables entering into the test is desired certain observations should be made which are in general unnecessary for ordinary tests. These are the measurement of the air supply, the determination of its contained moisture, the determination of the amount of heat lost by radiation, of the amount of infiltration of air through the setting, and (by condensation of all the steam made by the boiler) of the total heat imparted...
Página 408 - Standard Method. — Steam being raised to the working pressure, remove rapidly all the fire from the grate, close the damper, clean the ash-pit, and as quickly as possible start a new fire with weighed wood and coal, noting the time...
Página 407 - The steam pressure should be the same, the water level the same, the fire upon the grates should be the same in quantity and condition, and the walls, flues, etc., should be of the same temperature. To secure as near an approximation to exact uniformity as possible in conditions of the fire and in...
Página 413 - TESTS. 23. Quality of steam, dry steam being taken as unity 24. Percentage of moisture in steam per cent. 25.
Página 411 - The analysis of the flue gases is an especially valuable method of determining the relative value of different methods of firing, or of different kinds of furnaces. In making these analyses great care should be taken to procure average samples — since the composition is apt to vary at different points of the flue.
Página 405 - Have an understanding with the parties in whose interest the test is to be made, as to the character of the coal to be used. The coal must be dry; or, if wet, a sample must be dried carefully, and a determination of the amount of moisture in the coal must be made, the calculation of the results of the test being corrected accordingly.