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the Introduction to Don Quixote), that the first accounts of enchantinents were brought into this part of the world by those who returned from their eastern expeditions. But there is always some distance between the birth and maturity of folly as of wickedness: this opinion had long existed, though perhaps the application of it had in no foregoing age been so frequent, nor the reception so general. Olympiodorus in Photius's extracts, tells us of one Libanius, who practised this kind of military magic, and having promised tages of târ 2278 BeeBeégar irigysiu, to perform greaç things against the Barbarians without soldiers, was, at the instance of the em. press Placidia, put to death, when he was about to have given proofs of his abilities. The empress showed some kindness in her anger, by cutting him off at a time so convenient for his reputation.
But a more remarkable proof of the antiquity of this notion may be found in St. Chrysostom's book de Sacerdotio, which exhibits a scene of enchantments not exceeded by any romance of the middle
he supposes a spectator overlooking a field of battle attended by one that points out all the various objects of horror, the engines of destruction, and the arts of slaughter, Δεικνύτω δε ότι παρά τοις εναντίοις και τιτομένες ίππος διά τινος μαγγανείας, και οπλίτας δι αέρος φερομένες, και πάσης γοητείας δύναμιν και ιδίαν. Let him then proceed to show him in the opposite armies horses Nying by enchantment, armed men transported through the air, and everý power and form of magic. Whether St. Chrysostom believed that such performances were really to be seen in a day of battle, or only endeavoured to enliven his description, by adopting the notions of the vulgar, it is equally certain, that such notions were in his time received, and that thereforo they were not imported, from the Sarracens in a later age, the wars with the Sarsacens however gave occasion to their propagation, not only as bigotry naturally discovers prodigies, but as the scene of action was removed to a great distance.
The Reformation did not immediately arrive at its meridian, and though day was gradually increasing upon us, the goblins of witchcraft still continued to hover in the twilight. In the time of queen Elizabeth was the remarkable trial af witches of Warbois, whose conviction is still commemorated in an annual sermon at Huntingdon. But in the reign of King James, in whick this tragedy was written, many circumstances
concurred to propagate and confirm this opinion. The King, who was much celebrated for his knowledge,' bad, before this arrival in England, not only examined in person a woman accused of witchcraft, but had given a very formal account of the practises and illusions of evil spirits, the compacts
of witches, the ceremonies used by them, the manner of detecting them, and the justice of punishing them, in his dialogues of Damonologie, written in the Scottish dialect, and published at Edinburgh. This book was, soon after his succession , reprinted at London, and as the ready way to gain King James's favour was to flatter his speculations, the system of Dæmonologie was immediately adopted by all who desired either to gam preferment or not to lose it. Thus the doctrine of witchcraft was very powerfully inculcated; and as the greatest part of mankind have no other reasons for their opinions than that they are in fashion, it cannot be doubted but this persuasion made a rapid progress, since vanity and credulity co-operated in its favour, The infection soon reached the parliament, who, in the first year of King James made a law, by which it 'was enacted, chap. XII: That „1) if any person shall use any invocation or conjuration of any evil or wicked spirit; 2) or shall consult, covenant with, entertain, employ, feed or reward
any evil or cursed spirit 10 or for any intent or purpose; 3) or take up any dead man, woman or child, out of
-- or the skin, bone, or any part of the dead person, to be employed or used in any manner of witchcraft, ceny, claim, or enchantment; 4) or shall use, practise or exercise any sort of witchcralt,
charm or 'enchantment; 5) whereby any person shall be destroyed, killed, wasted, consumed, pined or lamed in any part of the body; 6) that every
such person heing convicted shall suffer death,” This law was repeated in our own time.
Thus, in the time of Shakspeare, was the doctrine of witchcraft at once established by law and by the fashion, and it became not only impolite, but criminal to doubt it; and as prodigies are always seen in proportion as they are expected, witches were every day discovered, and multiplied so fast in some places, that bisliop Hall mentions a village in Lancashire, where their number was greater than that of the houses. The jesuits and sectaries took advantage of this universal error and endeavoured to promote the interest of their parties by pretended cures of persons afflicted by evil spirits ; but they
were detected and exposed by the clergy of the established church.
Upon this general infatuation Shakspeare might be easily allowed to found a play, especially since he has followed with: great exactness such histories as were then thought true; can it be doubred that the scenes of enchantivent, however they may now be ridiculed, were both by himself and bis audience thought awful and affecting. Was die Ermordung Macbeth's betrifft, so fällt diese nach Buchanan in das Jahr 1040, nach Hector Boethius 1045; Shakspeare schrieb, wie schon oben erinnert worden ist, seine Tragödie in Jahre 1606. Öbrigens bemerken wir noch, da's der bes rühmte Schauspieler Garrick *) sich in der Rolle Macbeth's worzüglich auszeichnete, und sich allgemeine Bewunderung erwarb.
Wir besitzen diese meisterhafte Tragödie in unserer Deutschen Sprache in verschiedenen Übersetzungen, theils in den vorhin angeführten Verdeutschungen der sämmtlichen Werke Shakspeare's, theils auch einzeln von Bürger (im vierten Theil der Werke desselben), und von Schiller unter dem Titel: Macbeth, ein Trauerspiel zur Vorstellung auf dem Hoftheater zu Weimar eingerichtet. gr. 9. Tübingen 1801. - Das Original, dem wir einen Platz in diesem Buche einräumen zu müssen glaubten, ist nach der korrektesten Ausgabe abgedruckt, und mit einer Auswahl von Bemerkungen der vorzüglichsten Englischen Kommentatorert versehen worden,
*) Gerriak, der unsern unsterblichen Dichter anbetete, veranstaltete zum Andenken desse'ben 1769 m Sommer ein Fest, welches in cinem Entertainment bestand, unter dem Titel: The Jubilee, und anfangs. zu Stratford, nachher auch sehr oft in London gegeben wurde. Herr von Archenholz giebt in sei. ner Schrift England und Italien Seite 486 Sf. eine Beschreibung desselben, die man mit Vergnügen liesci und wieder lieset.
PERSONS REPRESENTED. Duncan, King of Scotland. Siward, Earl of Northumber
land, General of the English Malcolm,
forces. his sons.
Young Siward, his son.
Seyton, an Officer attending on Macbeth, Generals of the Macbeth. Banquo, S King's army. Son to Macduff.
An English Doctor. A Scotch Macduff,
A Soldier. A Porter. An old Noblemen of Scot- Man. Mentetli,
Jand, Lady Macbeth ). Angus,
Lady Macduff. Cathness,
Gentlewoman attending on La
dy Macbeth. Fleance, Son to Banquo.
Hecate and thrce Witches. Lords, Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murderers, Attendants ,
and Messengers. The Ghost of Banquo, and several other Apparitions. Scene in the end of the fourth act lies in England; through
the rest of the play, in Scotland, and chiefly at Macbeth's castle
An open place.
r. Witch. When shall we three meet again In thunder, lightning, or in rain?
2. Witch. When the hurlyburly's ") done, When the battle's lost or won 2).
3. Witch, That will be ere set of sun,
*) Her name was Gruach. ') hurlyburly wird in einem alten Englischen Buche durch uprore, tumultuous stirre erklärt. a) The battle, in which Macbeth was then engaged. Warburton.
1., Witch. Where the place?
Upon the heathi
All. Paddock *) calls : Anon.
A Camp near Fores.
not, with attendants, meeting a bleeding soldier.
This is the sergeant ,
Doubtfully it stood;
3) Graymalkin. From a little black - letter book, entitled: Beware the cat, 1584, I find it was permitted to a Witch to take on her o cattes body nimo times. Mr. Upton observes, that to understand this passage, we should suppose one familiar calling with the voice of a and' an other with the croaking of a toad. Steevens. 4) Paddock. According to some naturalists a frog is called a paddock in the North: in Shakspeare however it certainly means a toad. The meaning is : to us, perverse and malignant as we are, fair is foul and foul is fair. Johnson, 6) - to that i. e. in addition to that. The soldier who describes Macdonwald seems to mean, that, in addition to his assumed character of rebel he abounds with the numerous enormities to which man,
in his natural stále, is liable. Steevens, ) of and with are indiscriminately used by our ancient writers. Stee
Kernes waren leicht, und Gallowglasses schwer bewaffRete Fufsvölker der alten Bewohner Irlands,