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EXTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS IN THE YEAR 1960,

BY HURLBUT, KELLOGG, CO.

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To one inspecting a map of the Western Hemisphere, the terri. tories of that great division, adapted to a civilized population, appear pretty equally divided among the representatives of three European nations-England, Spain, and Portugal. France and Holland, whose transactions on the same theatre of action form a considerable item in the history of the past, have nearly—the first, from the insufficiency of her marine, and the second, from the feebleness of the parent state-lost the footing which their early enterprise attained, and, for the future, will probably take but little share in the destinies. social or political, of America.

Of the three races which have finally succeeded to the vast inheritance of the New World, that of Portugal, possessing the empire of Brazil—an empire embracing, it is probable, an ampler amount of natural wealth, and more numerous internal resources of greatness than any single country on the globe-must, from the present sparseness of population, and the comparatively general ignorance which prevails, be long in attaining any thing like national eminence.

The colonies of Spain, for some ages the most numerous and valuable that had been held by any nation since the days of Rome, after fruitlessly enriching the mother country, and suffering great oppression in return, nearly simultaneously cast off the yoke, and adopted constitutions more or less liberal—for the most part, unfortunately, only to evince, by a chronic state of revolution, their entire incapacity for self-government.

In the Anglo-American states, at the present time, two experiments, political and social, the most important in the history of the world, are being tried—the capacity for absolute self-government

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of a great nation, occupying a territory, from its vastness of extent,
and diversity of climate, dependent entirely on moral causes for the
union of its inhabitants—and the effect of mingling in a single com-
monwealth a variety of European races, each receiving continual
accessions of fresh nationality from an unprecedented tide of emi-
gration. Up to this moment, a measure of success far greater than
the most sanguine could have anticipated, has attended both of these
novel phases in the great cycle of human destiny. A liberty, more
nearly approaching to entire non-restraint than any of which history
affords an example, has been found compatible with the highest secu-
rity for person and property, and even with a tolerable permanence
of national policy, both domestic and foreign. And, strange to say,
from the heterogeneous elements so hurriedly thrown into contact,
and still in a state of imperfect fusion, a national character is rapidly
forming, possessed, it is probable, of stronger elements of greatness
than could be found in the constitution of any other people, ancient
or modern. A universal mental activity-an inventive genius,
bolder, acuter, and more original than has ever before been devel-

-a spirit of enterprise characterized by almost feverish eager-
ness and industry-yet, so far, remarkably free from the imputation
of aggression-such are some of the prominent traits of a people,
as yet in comparative political infancy, and whose ultimate position
and history present, both to calculation and imagination, outlines
vaster and bolder than any which the experience of the past world
can supply.

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ANCIENT Aboriginal Races; the Scandinavian Voyagers; Discovery of Iceland ; Eirek the Red ; Dis

covery and Settlement of Greenland; North America accidentally discovered by Biarni Heriulsson ; Voyage of Leif Eirekson; America named Vinland; the Voyage and Discoveries of Thorvald-His Death; Attempt of Thorstein,......

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CHAPTER II.

The Voyage of Thorfinn Karlsefni ; Worship of the God Thor in America ; Transient Settlements;

Fight with the Indians; Return; Noble conduct of Biarni Grimolfson; Mention of Vinland in many Ancient Chronicles; the Story of Biorn Asbrandson ; Icelandic Remains; a Conjectured Welsh Colony,

PART II.

THE SPANIARDS IN AMERICA.

THE DISCOVERIES OF COLUMBUS AND SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST INDIES.

CHAPTER I. Early Life of Columbus-His Experience and Attainments ; General Passion for Discovery; Formation of

his Scheme ; Negotiations with the Court of Portugal; Treachery of the King; Columbus in Spain His Poverty; La Rabida ; Application to the Court of Spain; Delays; the Council of SalamancaIgnorance and Bigotry of its Members.......

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Delay and Disappointment experienced by Columbus-His Final Success, and Treaty with the Court o:

Spain ; Obstacles to the Project; the Pinzons ; Sailing of the Expedition ; Particulars of the Voyage, Perseverance of Columbus ; Discovery of Guanahani; the Natives; Erroneous Expectations of Colombus........

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Discovery of other Bahama Islands ; Continued Expectations of finding Asia ; Discovery of Cuba

Discovery of Hayti, .or Hispaniola ; Character of the inhabitants ; the Cacique Guacanagari; the Santa Maria wrecked ; La Navidad fortified ; Columbus sails for Spain ; Further Adventures with the Natives.......

CHAPTER IV. The Voyage to Spain ; Peril from Tempests ; Reflections of Columbus ; Perfidious Conduct of a Portu

guese; Columbus arrives at Lisbon ; Mortification of King John; the Arrival at Palos; Death of Pinzon ; Splendid Reception of the Admiral at Court; Honours conferred on him; His Second Voyage ; Great Excitement; Discovery of Dominica, Gaudaloupe, Porto Rico, &c.; Adventures with the Cannibals,

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Arrival of the Fleet at Hayti; the Destruction of La Navidad ; City of Isabella founded ; Expeditions to

the Interior ; Sufferings and Discontent of the Colonists ; Expedition of Columbus to the West ; Discovery of Jamaica; Intercourse with the Natives ; Tedious Coasting along Cuba ; Supposed to be a portion of Asia; Extraordinary Process; the Return Voyage,. ......

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CHAPTER VI.

Misconduct of the Spaniards in Hayti ; Hostilities of the Indians ; their Defeat and Enslavement; Injuri'

ous Treatment of Columbus ; Appointment of Aguado; their Return to Spain,........

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CHAPTER VII.

PAGE. The Declining Fortunes of Columbus; Difficulties in Fitting out an Expedition ; Sails on his Third Voyage ;

the Discovery of South America; Extraordinary Theory ; Columbus arrives at Hayti ; Disorders there;
the Rebellion of Roldan; Hostilities with the Indians—their Defeat,.......

CBAPTER VIII.
Triumph of the Rebels ; Columbus Ruined at Court; Appointment of Bobadilla–His Insolence; Colum-

bus sent to Spain in Chains ; Sensation of the Nation ; Verbal Redress; Appointment of Ovando;
Fourth and Last Voyage of Columbus to the New World ; Destruction of his Enemies, by Tempest ;
His Cruise on the Coasts of Honduras, Costa Rica, &c., &c. ; Search for a Strait ; His Disappointment, 63

CHAPTER IX

Disastrous Attempt to Found a Settlement ; Hostilities with the Indians; the Vessels finally Stranded on

the Island of Jamaica ; Extraordinary Device of Columbus ; Mutiny of his Followers ; Treachery of Ovando ; Rescue of the Crews ; Atrocities committed on the Natives of Hayti; Return of Columbus to Spain-His Treatment—His Death ; Disposal of his Remains,....

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CHAPTER X.

Discovery and Survey of Cuba-its Conquest by Velasquez; Memorable Speech of an Indian ; Founda

tion of Havana, &c. ; Conquest of Porto Rico by Ponce de Leon ; Singular Experiment of a Cacique ; Final Subjugation of the Island ; Discovery of Jamaica-its Humane Conquest by Juan de Esquivel ; Subsequent Cruelties of the Spaniards ; Account of Americus Vespucius,.....

THE SETTLEMENT OF THE ISTHMUS AND DISCOVERY OF THE PACIFIC.

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I.

CHAPTER
Disastrous Attempts to found a Settlement on the Isthmus ; Vasco Nunez de Balboa ; the Settlement of

Darien ; Dealings with the Indians; Rumors of the South Sea ; Expedition of Balboa ; Contests
with the Indians ; Discovery of the Pacific............

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III.

The Return March; Appointment of Pedrarias Davilla--His Expedition—His Jealousy of Balboa ; Misfor

tunes of the Colony; Expedition of Morales and Pizarro; Reconciliation of Predrarias and Balboa ;
Vessels conveyed Overland to the Pacific; Sudden Arrest, Trial, and Execution of Balboa, ........

CHAPTER
Fernando Magellan–His Voyage to the South-west ; Winters at Port St. Julian; the Patagonians ; Dis-

covery and Passage of the Straits of Magellan ; Voynge through the Pacific to the Philippine Isles ;
Rashness and Death of Magellan ; the World Circumnavigated,.....

THE CONQUEST AND HISTORY OF MEXICO.

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CHAPTER I.

CHAPTER

e rogress of Spanish Conquest; Discovery of Yucatan-of Mexico; Hernando Cortes—His Expedition ;
Ascent of the Rio de Tabasco ; Contests with the Indians ; Arrival at San Juan de Ulua............. 101

II.
The Mexican Aborigines-their Origin and Appearance-their Government, Theology, Manners and
Customs,

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CHAPTER III.
The Emperor Montezuma ; Landing of the Spaniards—their Negotiations with Montezuma-His impolicy:

Splendid Presents ; Cortes Revolts against Velasquez-Forms an Alliance with the Totonacs—Destroys their Idols-Sets forth for Mexico,....

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CHAPTER IV.

The March toward Mexico; Spirited Resistance of the Tlascalans; Success of the Spaniards--their Dis

couragements; Firmness of Cortes ; Submission of the Tlascalans; Singular Change of Feeling; Duplicity of Cortes ; His Zeal for Conversion,....

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CHAPTER

Submission of Provinces ; Curtes marches on Cholula ; Plot Discovered ; Massacre of the Cholulans ; the

March to Mexico Resumed; Weak Policy of Montezuma; the Entrance into Mexico; Interviews with the Emperor-His Generosity and Affability,.........

119 CHAPTER VI. Description of the Ancient Capital of Tenochtitlan or Mexico; the Pulaces of Montezuma ; His Collec

tions of Natural History; Superstition of the Spaniards; Hideous Scenes of Sacrifice ; Reflections,... 124

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