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dens of a species of nunnery, were fruits and flowers, exquisitely represented in the same precious metals. Overwhelmed with joy at these welcome tidings, the Spaniards weighed anchor, and stood along the coast to effect fresh discoveries.

They were every where treated with the greatest kindness and attention by the natives, wbo, from their fair complexions and brilliant armour, gave them the name of “Children of the Sun”_their own most venerated deity. Fresh accounts of the great Inca, whose capital, resplendent with gold, was said to lie among the mountains, and fresh evidences of wealth and civilization, such as stone houses and well-cultivated fields, continually cheered the spirits of the adventurers, and convinced them that they had arrived at last at the long-sought region. After cruising to the ninth degree of south latitude, they turned northward, and bore the brilliant tidings to Panama.

Singular to state, the new governor, averse to enterprise, in the face of these splendid omens of success, absolutely refused his coun: tenance to any new expedition, declaring that "he did not mean to depopulate his own province to people New Lands, nor to cause the death of any more people than had been killed already; for a show of Sheep (llamas) Gold, and Silver, which had been brought home.” It was therefore resolved by the confederates that Pizarro should sail to Spain, and apply in person to the crown for assistance adequate to the enterprise. Furnished with fifteen hundred ducats, to aid his suit, and bearing specimens of the productions of Peru, in the summer of 1528, he arrived at Toledo, where the emperor (Charles V.) then held his court.

Illiterate, but eloquent by nature, he related his story, and pleaded his cause with extraordinary effect. The sovereign, it is said, was moved to tears by the recital, and his interest and cupidity were powerfully awakened by the sight of the Peruvian treasure and the prospect of grasping the unimaginable wealth of that distant region. The suit of Pizarro was referred, with favourable recommendation, to the Council of the Indies; and accordingly, after a year's delay, full powers of discovery and conquest in a vast extent of country were granted to him, with the offices of governor, captain.general, &c., &c., over such regions as he should reduce under submission to the crown. The complete authority, in effect, was vested in his hands—the claims of Almagro and Luque being acknowledged only hy slight appointments. To secure the possession of these dignities and privileges, however, he was bound, within a certain

time, to provide two hundred and fifty men, and with them to sail for Panama.

With all the prestige of his new importance, the adventurer betook him to his native place, where many of his townsmen were found ready to embark in the enterprise. Among these were four of his brothers, of whom Hernando alone was legitimate, Gonzalo and Juan Pizarro owning the same parents as himself, and Francisco de Alcantara being connected with him only by the mother. All were men of extraordinary courage and resolution. The requisite funds were obtained with difficulty, and it is said that but for the opportune assistance of Cortes, with whom, as we have seen, Pizarro became acquainted at Palos, the scheme might have failed altogether. As it was, he was unable fully to complete his stipulated armament; and in January, 1530, with only a portion of the required force, hurriedly put to sea, and sailed for Nombre de Dios.

Almagro and Luque, who were there eagerly awaiting his arrival, were exceedingly angered and disappointed at the perfidious conduct of their confederate; but he promised solemnly that all the terms of the compact should be fulfilled; and, a hollow truce being thus patched up, all betook themselves to Panama.

Very few recruits could be obtained at that place, and early in January, 1531, with an hundred and eighty-three men and twentyseven horses, in three vessels, leaving Almagro to gather rëinforcements, Pizarro set forth to effect the Conquest of Peru. After a voyage of thirteen days, he disembarked at the Bay of St. Matthew, a little north of the equator, and with most of his men, marched southward along the shore, accompanied by the vessels. At an Indian village in Coaque, which they took by surprise, these marauders got a great booty in gold and emeralds, part of which Pizarro sent back to Panama, as an allurement for recruits. The march proved excessively severe—the sun, in these low latitudes, striking with terrible power on the soldiers cased in steel armour, or halfsmothered in their thick doublets of quilted cotton. Several perished on the way, and the remainder were much relieved by the arrival of a vessel from the Isthmus, containing supplies and a small reinforcement.

The invading force finally reached the Gulf of Guayaquil, and passed over to the isle of Puna, opposite Tumbez, where it encamped. The people of that city came over in a friendly way, to visit them, but the islanders, provoked by an act of hostility, gathering, to the

number of several thousands, attacked the Spanish quarters. After a hardly.contested fight, they were repulsed by the cavalry and firearms-a result attributed by the piety of the Christians to the prowess of the archangel Michael, who it is recorded) was seen, with the angelic hosts, fighting in the air against a multitude of demons, whose defeat was simultaneous with that of the Indians. In honour of this miraculous assistance, Pizarro vowed that the first city he should found should receive the name of his heavenly protector-a vow subsequently fulfilled at the erection of San Miguel. But, despite their losses, the islanders still maintained a hostile attitude, and the Spaniards hailed with joy the arrival of a hundred men, under Hernando de Soto, the future invader of Florida and discoverer of the Mississippi. Thus strengthened, Pizarro resolved to cross to the mainland, and proceed at once to his gigantic undertakingthe Conquest of Peru.

CH A P ? ER I I I.



The history of no half-civilized race is more replete with interest than that of the ancient Peruvians. Their advance in the arts and in the refinements of social life was fully equal to that of the Mexicans; but wide dissimilarities existed between the two nations, and no traces of a common origin, or indeed, of any communication between them, have been discovered. The picture of Peruvian life given by the old writers contains less that is repulsive, and evinces a greater degree of general prosperity and content, than that presented of the condition of Mexico under the Montezumas. It is true that by the singular nature of the government of the Incas, no room was left for individual enterprise, or for the development of individual superiority; but, on the other hand, the utmost care for the general welfare animated every department. Agrarian laws pave never been maintained for any length of time, except in Peru, where a yearly division took place of the portion of the scil not reserved for the use of the church and the government.

The perfection and exactitude of this 'extraordinary system, considering the variety of races and the vast extent of territory subject to the Peruvian monarchs, are almost incredible. It was unquestionably "the most perfect specimen of a “paternal despotism' which has ever been presented to the eye of the world. The inca was absolute, and all the inhabitants of his vast dominions did not possess the shadow of a right or law apart from his sovereign will. Nor was this portentous assertion of authority a mere instrument of terror, produced only on state occasions, to overawe the refractory or minister to the caprice of the sovereign. It formed an integral and engrossing portion of the life of every man, woman, and child throughout the Peruvian domains. Industry, food, clothing, shelter, domestic relations, amusements, every thing, were under the direct supervision of government. No one was allowed to be idle. No one was permitted to suffer from want. Education, marriage, social ) intercourse, were all under strict regulation. In such a place the subject must reside; such and such work, at stated times, he must perform; at such an age he must take a certain wife; and he must bring up his children in a fixed and certain manner.

The imperative spirit of despotism would not allow them to be happy or miserable in any way but that established by law. The power of free agency—the inestimable and in-born right of every human beingwas annihilated in Peru.'

"Despotism, says a profound, but popular writer, may be borne, but the intermeddling of a royal busy-body is too much for human nature. This rule, accurately enough applied to the sprightlier people of Europe, may have its exceptions; for, strange to say, among the Peruvians, this apparently vexatious system seems to have worked well. It was indeed remarkably accordant with the gentle, industrious, and custom-loving disposition of the races to which it was applied, and few more pleasing pictures of rural quiet and tranquillity exist, than those which are given of this people under its primitive government."*

The curaca or governor of each district exercised a constant per: sonal supervision over his people, making periodical reports to his enperiors of the most minute details of the labours accomplished, and of the agricultural productions. The assiduous cultivation of the soil was pursued in the face of natural obstacles greater than have been elsewhere successfully overcome. The plains were barren from want of rain, which never falls there in sufficient quantity to avail for the irrigation of the fields; and, to render them fruitful, the mountain torrents were turned from their courses, conducted through massive aqueducts of hewn stone, and distributed by innumerable channels through the cultivable territory. The steep and alnıost inaccessible sides of the mountains were cut into terraces, and teemed with luxurious crops of Indian corn, potatoes, quinoa, and other productions of the country. Districts naturally barren were enriched by the use of guano from the coast and from the neighbouring islands.

* Discoverers, &c., of America.

The government monopoly extended not only to the soil, but to the flocks of llamas from which the clothing of nearly the whole nation was derived, and which supplied the principal portion of ani mal food used in Peru. These diminutive animals, the only beasts of burden known in the country, were mostly turned loose among the mountains, where they wandered in immense herds, under the care of their keepers and secure from molestation, until the season for shearing. At appointed periods they were driven in, and, after the fleece was secured, and a portion of the males reserved for food, were again set at liberty. The fleece was carefully distributed among the people, to be manufactured into clothing by the women, and the entire disposition of this valuable article was impartially but severely regulated by government officials.

Care was taken to reserve from the annual products of the public lands and flocks, a certain portion for future emergencies, which was stored in extensive dépôts upon the great roads. Immense quantities of provision were accumulated in this manner, and convenient halting-places and abundant supplies were furnished for the royal armies on their march through the country. Every thing was so perfectly systematized, that no man felt oppressed or burdened by tho heavy demands on his time and labour made by the authorities.

A large body of labourers, relieved at stated intervals by fresh recruits, were constantly employed upon the public roads and buildings; and the ruins yet remaining sufficiently attest the efficiency of their operations. It is doubtful whether such immense undertak. ings were ever elsewhere accomplished with no greater aid froin machinery and beasts of burden. The whole kingdom was traversed by broad and convenient highways, in the construction of

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