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Vaprincipled Scheme of Cortes; His Treacherous Seizure of Montezuma; Burning of the Aztec

Chiefs; Outrage on the Emperor's Person; Frustrated Conspiracy of the Princes; the Caciques swear Allegiance to the Spanish Crown; Affecting Scene; Great Tribute of Treasure ; Rapacity of Cortes,.....

123 OBAPTIR VIII. Religious Zeal of Cortes; Discontent of the Mexicans; Dangerous Position of the Spaniards ; Trans

actions at the Court of Spain; Velasquez dispatches on Expedition against Cortes; Cortes marches agninst Narvaez; Defeates and takes him Prisoner; His Politic Conduct after Victory; His Forces greatly augmented,..

132 CHAPTER IX Massacre of the Caciques by Alvarado; the Garrison Besieged; Cortes returns to Mexico; His Anger and

Insolence; General Attack by the Aztecs; Desperate Conflict for many days; Montezuma addresses the People ; Disastrous Result; The Great Teocalli taken by Storm,...

137 CHAPTER X. Cortes prepares to leave the City; Death of Montezuma; The "Noche Triste," or Miserable Night; Great

Slaughter of Spaniards and Tlascalans on the Causeway of Tacuba ; The Retreat to Tlascula ; Battle of Otumba, and Extraordinary Victory of the Spaniards,.....

142

XI. Fidelity of the Tlascalan Chiefs; Resolution of Cortes; the War renewed ; Great Successes of the Span

iards ; Sagacious Policy of Cortes; He acquires a Great Force of Native Allien ; Death of Cuitlahua, and Accession of Guatemozin to the Azteo Throne; Cortes marches to the Valley of Mexico; Takes up his Quarters at Tezcuco,....

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CHAPTER

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The Campaign against Mexico renewed ; Iztapalapan and other Cities taken by Storm; Great Accessions

to the Power of Cortes; Brigantines transported overland from Tlascala ; Many Battles with the Aztecs-their Resolution ; Cortes marches around the Lakes, and storms many Cities--Arrives at Tacuba ; Singular Display of Emotion,....

CHAPTER XIII. Return to Tezcuco; Conspiracy against Cortes-His Extraordinary Policy and Self-command; Launching

of the Fleet; Execution of Xicotencati ; Defeat of a Great Mexican Flotilla by the Fleet; Mexico Blockaded; Continual Assaults on the City; Courage and Obstinacy of the Combatants,....... 155

CHAPTER XIV. General Assault on the City; Artful Device of the Besieged ; Defeat of the Spaniards—their Losses ; Ter

rible Particulars of the Sacrifice of Prisoners; the Great Drum; Discouragement and Defection of the Allies--their Return; Gradual Destruction of the City,.....

150 CHAPTER Terrible Sufferings and Mortality of the Besieged ; Obstinate Resistance of Guatemozin ; Courage and

Fidelity of his People ; Mexico taken by Storm; Fearful Massacre ; Capture of Guatemozin ; Reflections on the Conquest,....

........ 164

CHAPTER XVI

The Torture of Guatemozin ; Settlement of the Country; Fresh Enterprises ; Offices and Titles conferred

on Cortes—His Ostentation-His Sagacious Policy; Grent Extension of the Spanish Territory; the Revolt of Olid; Terrible March to Honduras; the Murder of Guatemozin

169

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Arrival at Honduras ; Usurpation in Mexico; Obsequies and Masses performed for Cortes—His Retur;

Suspicion of the Court; Cortes sails to Spain; Honors bestowed on him; Returns to Mexico; Expensive Expeditions ; Cortes again returns to Spain; Unsuccessful at Court; His Death; His Character; Fate of the Conquerors,..

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CHAPTER XVIII.

Condition of the Indians and the Spanish Colonists; National Pride ; System of Government; Depredn

tions of the Buccaneers; Public Works for the Protection of the Capital; Indian Revolts ; Vera Cruz seized by Agramont; Jesuits Expelled,......

....... 176:

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Commencement of the First Revolution; Iturrigaray; Hidalgo; First Outbreak; Insurgents Defeated by

Calleja ; Rayon and Morelos ; Congress at Chilpanzingo; Declaration of Independence; Reverses of the Patriots; (lurbide,...

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THE CONQUEST AND HISTORY OP PERU.

CHAPTER I.

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VII.

CHAPTER

PAGE. Execution of Challcuchima; Indian Hostilities; Entrance of the Spaniards into Cuzco; More Treasure;

Inauguration of the Inca Manco Capac; Lima founded; Disputes between Almagro and the Pizarros ; Rising of the Indians ; Siege of Cuzco; Massacre of the Spaniards; Civil War between the Spanish Generals ; Defeat and Execution of Almagro,......

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CHAPTER VIII.

Mission of Hernando ; His Fate; Expedition of Gonzalo Pizarro ; Discovery of and Voyage down the

Amazon ; Terrible Sufferings ; Conspiracy against Pizarro by the Partizans of Almagro ; His Assassination ; His Character, &c....

243

CHAPTER IX Vaca de Castro; Defeat of Young Almagro at Chupas; Blasco Nunez de Vela ; Unpopular Decrees ; Rebellion, headed by Gonzalo Pizarro; Overthrow of the Viceroy,....

247 CHAPTER X. Forces raised by Nunez; His Flight Northward ; Decisive Battle near Quito; Death of the Viceroy, Su

premacy of Pizarro; Mission of Pedro de la Gasca ; His Politic Proceedings; Battle of Huarina; Pizarro at Cuzco,...

252

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Cautious Movements of Gasca ; His March to Cusco; Bloodless Victory at Xaquixaguana ; Execution of

Carbajal and Pizarro; Wise Administration of Gasca ; Subsequent Disorders; the Colonial System; the Mita and Repartimiento; Insurrection in 1780,.......

257 CHAPTER Commencement of the Revolution ; Invasion by San Martin ; Occupation of Lima ; Independence Proclaimed ; Reverses of the Patriots ; Arrival of Bolivar in Peru,.....

261

XII.

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Successes of the Royalists ; Movements of the Patriot Army; Decisive Victory of Ayacucho; Siege of Callao; Bolivar's Administration ; Subsequent Condition of the Republic,....

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Expedition of Almagro ; Commission of Pedro de Taldivin ; St. Jago Founded ; Battle with the Mapoch

inians; Embassy of Miranda and Monroy ; Destruction of the Quillotan Miners; Valdivia's March Southward; the Araucanians, ...

269

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Battle at the Andalien; Invasion of Araucania ; Foundation of the City of Valdivia ; Election of Can

polican to the Ofhce of Toqui; Indian Successes ; Defent and Death of Valdivia ; Defeat of Villagran by Lautaro; Destruction of the City of Conception, ......

275

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Mortality among the Indians ; Disputes respecting the Viceroyalty ; Second Destruction of Conception ;

Lautaro's Expedition against Santiago; Don Garcia de Mendoza ; Invasion of Araucania ; Caupelican's Discomfiture; Expedition to Chiloe,...

280

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Caupolican the younger ; Signal Successes of the Spaniards ; Warlike Operations of Antiguenu-of Paillamachu; Recovery of Araucania by the Natives ; Peace Concluded in 1641,......

285

CHAPTER V.

Renewal of War; Peace of 1773; Present Condition of the Araucanians ; the Revolution in Chili; the Carreras;

Rëestablishment of Spanish Power ; Intervention of San Martin ; Civil Wars ; Attempt of Ramon Frerye ; Rebellion under Vidaurre ; Establishment of the Republic,..

289

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Juan Ponce de Leon--His Voyage in Search of the Fountain of Youth ; Discovery of Florida ; His Seo

ond Expedition ; His Death; Disastrous Attempts of Allyon and Narvaez ; Hernando de Soto-Ap pointed Governor of Cuba; His Expedition to Florida ; March to the Interior; Contests with the In dians,..

995

CHAPTER II.

PAGI Delusive Report of an Indian ; Disastrous March through the Interior ; King Tuscaloosa— His State and

Haughtiness ; His Secret Treachery; Great Battle al Mauvila ; Conflagration of the Town, and Victory of the Spaniards; Mutinous Spirit of the Cavaliers ; Despondency of De Soto; He resumes the March,.......

CHAPTER III.

De Soto Marches Westward ; Losses from Indian Hostility; Reaches and Crosses the Mississipp,

Marches to Arkansas ; Returns to the Mississippi; His Death and Burial ; Fate of the Survivors; their Voyage to Mexico,....

302

CHAPTER IV

Early French Settlemento ; Bloody Contests between the Spanish and French Colonists ; Spanish Mia

sions ; English Depredations and Colonization on the Coast ; Invasions of Florida by Governor Moore,....

300

CHAPTER V.

The Yamasees; Invasion of Florida by Oglethorpe ; Cession to Great Britain ; Dr. Turnbull's Colony;

Recession to Spain; Invasion of East Florida from the United States ; Acquisition of Florida by the United States,...

... 311

SOUTH AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS.

COLOMBIA.

CHAPTER 1. Loyalty of the Spanish Colonists ; Arrogance and Tyranny of their Rulers ; Causes of the Revolution ; The Establishment of Juntas; Massacre at Quito; the Junta of Caraccas in Venezuela ; Commencement of Hostilities ; Declaration of Independence,....

316

OHAPTER II.

The Affairs of New Granada ; Expulsion of the Spaniards from Santa Fe and Quito; Dissensions of the

Republicans ; Advantages of the Royalists—their Cruelty; the "Army of Death ;" Fresh Massacre at Quito ; Alternate successes of the Patriots and Royalists; the Earthquake at Caraccas ; its Effect ; Overthrow of the Liberals,....

319

CHAPTER III.

Simon Bolivar--His Generous and Patriotic Spirit ; His Successes agninst the Royalists ; Assisted by New

Granada ; He Re-enters Caraccas; “War to the Death ;" the Servile Insurrection and War; Cruel Deed of Bolivar; Battles with the Royalists; Renewed Prostration of the Republican Cause, ........ 322

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Restoration of Ferdinand ; Extinction of Loyalty in the Colonies ; Tyrannical Policy of the King; Spirited Conduct of the Congress of New Granada ; Dissensions of the Republicans ; Injudicious Con

325 duct of Bolivar,......

CHAPTER

Arrival of the Spanish Army, under Morillo; Terrible Blockade of Carthagena ; Renewed Exertions of

the Patriots ; Alternate Successes ; Morillo conquers New Granada ; Severities exercised on the Vanquished ; Marches into Venezuela ; Successful Defense of Margarita by the Patriots,..

323

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Attitude of Foreign Nations ; British Volunteers; Campaign of Bolivar in New Granada ; Brilliant Suc

cesses ; Defeat and Flight of the Royalists ; Gratitude of the People; Union of the States of New Granada and Venezuela under the title of Colombia ; Reverses and Successes of the Patriots

CHAPTER Revolution in Spain ; Overtures of the Spanish Lenders; Resolution of the Patriots; the Armistice; the

War renewed ; Humane Policy of Bolivar; Signal Victories of the Republicans ; The Spaniards Completely Expelled from Columbia; Independence of that State acknowledged.....

335

VII.

BOLIVIA. The Revolution in La Paz; a Junta established ; the City taken by the Royalists—their Cruelties; the

Patriot Army marches from Buenos Ayres—its Success and Subsequent Defeat; Second Attempt at Rev. olution ; Massacres in Cochabamba and Potosi; Second Expedition from Buenos Ayres—its Discomfiture · Guerilla Warfare ; Bolivia Emancipated by the Victory of Ayacucho,.......

339

UNITED PROVINCES OF LA PLATA..

PAGR.

CHAPTER I. ('auses of the Rovolution in Buenos Ayres ; the Viceroys Liniers and Cisneros ; their Fate ; Wars with

the Royalists in Upper Peru—in Monte Video; Dissensions among the Patriots ; Rapid Changes of Government; Altornate Successes of the Patriots and Royalists; San Martin ; Fall of Monte Video ; Election of Pueyredon as Supreme Director,

343

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Feuds of the Patriots ; Obstinacy of Artigas ; the Portuguese take Monte Video, and Defeat the Republi

cans; San Martin; his Passage of the Andes and Victorious Campaign in Chili; Upper Peru; Continved Resistance of the Banda Oriental,.....

347 CHAPTER Affairs in Chili; Disasters of the Patriots ; Victory of San Martin at the Plains of Maypu; Independence

of Chili secured; Constitution of the United Provinces ; Resignation of Pueyredon ; Continued Civil Dissensions; Final Restoration of Harmony; the Republic Acknowledged by the United States......... 350

III.

PART III.

THE PORTUGUESE IN AMERICA.

BRAZIL

OHAPTER I. Discovery of Brazil by Cabral-of Rio de Janeiro by Sousa ; French Colony; Aggressions of the Dutch;

their Conquests ; Count Maurice of Nassau; his successes ; his Recall ; Impolicy of the Dutch; their Expulsion from Brazil,...

353

CHAPTER II.

Brazil a Penal Colony; the Result; Oppression of the Natives ; The Feudal System ; Governor-general;

Appointed ; Story of Caramuru; Bahia; the Jesuits ; War with the Cahetes; Mem de Sa; his Crusade against Cannibalism; War with the Aymores; their Characteristics,...

356

CHAPTER III.

Brazil under Spanish Influence ; English Piratical Expeditions ; Odium incurred by the Jesuits in Protect

ing the Indians; Revolts ; War with the Negro Nation, the Palmarese—their Subdual ; Gold and Diamonds ; French Hostilities ; Defeat of Du Clerc ; Rio Janeiro taken by Duguay de Trouin ; the Cruel and Impolitic Expulsion of the Jesuits from Brazil,....

359

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Flight of the Royal Family from Portugal to Brazil ; the “Casta Regia ; " Brazil opened to Foreign Trade

and Civilization ; Brazil erected into a Kingdom; Dom John VI. ; Corruption and Discontent; Insurrections; Return of the King to Portugal; Tyranny of the Portuguese Cortes ; Irritation of the Brazilians; Resistannce of Dom Pedro and his Capital,.......

363

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Impotent Demonstration of the Portuguese Government ; Dom Pedro proclaimed Protector; Independence

of Brazil declared ; Pedro proclaimed Emperor ; Retreat of the Portuguese Troops; Difficulties with the Democracy; Insurrection under Carvalho suppressed ; Popular Revolution at Rio; Abdication of Dom Pedro, and his Retreat to Portugal,

366

CEAPTER VI. Che Child Dom Pedro II. ; the Triple Regency; the Regency of Feijo-of Lima ; Fresh Revolution; the

Majority of the Emperor proclaimed ; Popular Troubles renewed—Disastrous Result; the Royal Marriages; Capabilities and Necessities of Brazil,.....

270

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