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13 Of Asher; Pagiel the son

10 These were the renownof Ocran.

ed of the congregation, princes 14 Of Gad; Eliasaph the son of the tribes of their fathers, of Deuel.

heads of thousands in Israel. 15 Of Naphtali; Ahira the son of Enan.

ch. 7. 2. 1 Chr. 27. 16, etc. Ex. 18. 21, 25.

were substituted in his place, Gen. 48: And the officers of the children of 5, 6. 1 Chron. 5:1. 2. Gad is also Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters omitted, as his tribe was virtually had set over them, were beaten, and merged in that of Judah, Num. 2:10- demanded, Wherefore have ye not ful14. “Deuel,” v. 14, is called “Reuel,” filled your task in making brick, both ch. 2:14. The similarity of the letter yesterday and to-day, as heretofore ?70 and 7R would make the exchange -1 Of the congregation. From the of the one for the other easy.

usage of this term in several instances V. 16. These were the renowned of the it would appear that it does not always congregation. Heb. keruë hâedâh, the denote the whole congregation, the encalled ones of the congregation. The tire mass of the Israelitish nation, but original word signifies literally called the deputies or representatives of the or named, as if in this instance imply- several tribes convened and acting in ing those who were designated by the the name of the whole. Michaelis (Laws Lord himself to this function, which of Moses, P. I. art. 45) draws this inferwould of course have the effect to ren- ence from the fact that while Moses is der them more distinguished and hon- said to have spoken “ to the whole conorable than before. The Latin Vulg. gregation,” yet he could not possibly accordingly has “nobilissimi principes have been heard by one or two millions multitudinis,” most noble princes of the of people, and therefore he must have multitude. The Gr. etiKANTOh, distin- addressed himself to a certain number guished, illustrious. In other connec- of persons deputed to represent the tions, as Num. 16:2. 26 : 9. Ez. 23:23, rest. These persons he understands to it is rendered to the same effect, famous be denoted by “the called of the conand renowned ; but for the most part gregation” here mentioned. Syr. “The the English words answering to it are celebrated of the assembly.” This imcalled, invited, bidden, and also guests. port of a national council or diet, of a We may here perhaps unite the two representative character, we regard as senses, and consider the term as denot- probably the correct one. The context ing persons renowned for the wisdom of will generally determine when it bears age, and therefore called to consult upon this sense. -1 Princes of the tribes all matters of importance pertaining to of their fathers. Heb. nesië mattoth, the tribes. This is favored by some of princes or rulers of the tribes.

“Capthe earlier English versions. “Ancient tains.”—Cov. “Lords.”—Mat., Cran. men (or elders).”—Cov. “ Counsel | The original is derived from a root siglors.”—Mat. “ The called."-Ains. nifying to raise, to elevate, and denotes “They who are called.”—Pur. Rabbi accordingly one who is lifted up and Sol. Jarchi says these were the same officially preferred above the rest of the personages who in Egpyt were beaten people.- - Heads of the thousands by Pharaoh's taskmasters. Ex. 5:14, I in Israel. Gr. Xidiapxon, chiliarchs.

17 And Moses and Aaron / ed Moses, so he numbered themi took these men which are ex- in the wilderness of Sinai. pressed by their names : : 20 And the children of Reu

18 And they assembled all ben, Israel's eldest son, by the congregation together on their generations, after their the first day of the second families, by the house of their month, and they declared their fathers, according to the numpedigrees after their families, ber of the names, by their by the house of their fathers, polls, every male from twenty according* to the number of years old and upward, all that the names, from twenty years were able to go forth to war; old and upward, by their polls. 21 Those that were numbered

19 As the LORD command of them, even of the tribe of

A Rev. 7. 4, etc. i John 10.3. k ver. 20, etc. I ver. 2.

These “heads” were not only men of or conveyed to ačovas, tables, denoting note and weight in their tribes, such

a process of registration. As they demen as Jethro advised Moses to asso

clared their genealogies, the proper ciate with him in governing the people, officers took them down. The fair imEx. 18:21, but also commanders of the plication is, that in all matters pertainbands or companies of thousands into ing to the order in which the Lord which the tribes were divided, respect- would have his church arranged, while ing which see Ex. 18:21, 25. The Heb. he in a supreme manner controls and term for “thousands” is rendered overrules every thing, yet bis people “ families” in Judg. 6:15, though re- are not to forego their own agency, but tained in Mic. 5:2, where it is trans- are to do all in their power to number lated by the Gr. “rulers” or “govern- and arrange themselves.

-T By their ors,” which rendering is sanctioned by polls. Heb. “By their skulls.” Gr. the Spirit of inspiration, as it occurs “ From head to head.” Mat. 2:6.

V. 20. And the children of Reuben. V. 17. Which are expressed by their Reuben holds the first place, not benames. Heb. nikkebo, pricked or pierced, cause his tribe was the most numerous, i. e. designated. See Note on Lev. 26:11. for in this respect it fell short of seve

V. 18. And they assembled, etc. As ral of the others, but from his being the the command was given by the Lord first-born. -T By their generations, from the Tabernacle on the first day of after their families, etc. See on these the second month, v. 1, so it appears it subdivisions of the tribes the Nute on was immediately executed, or began to v. 2. above. “Generations” denotes a be executed, on the same day. True larger number than “families,” and obedience is ever a prompt obedience. “ families” than “houses,” while

-1 And they declared their pedigrees. “ houses,” or households, comprised all Heb. yithyaledu, they genealogized them the individuals pertaining to each. selves. That is, recited their pedigree V. 21. Those that were numbered of according to their families and houses. them, etc. Heb. pekudëhem le-mattch The Gr., according to one reading, has re-ubën, the numbered of them to the ETEOKETNOav, recounted, and according tribe of Reuben, or more correctly the to another enngovovoav, i. e. referred | arranged, the marshalled, the ordered ; Reuben, were forty and six thou- 23 Those that were numbersand and five hundred.

ed of them, even of the tribe of 22 Of the children of Simeon, Simeon, were fifty and nine by their generations, after their thousand and three hundred. families, by the house of their 24 Of the children of Gad, fathers, those that were num- by their generations, after their bered of them, according to the families, by the house of their number of the names, by their fathers, according to the numpolls, every male from twenty ber of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; were able to go forth to war;

2d Census.

1st Census.

Ch. I.

for we still adhere to the view. given in Ex. 38:26. In regard to each tribe above of the purport, in this connec- the object is not to ascertain de novo of tion, of the original word. We do not how many it consisted, but the number regard it as implying strictly to num- already previously ascertained is mereber, but rather to review, marshal, or ly restated. We here, after Ainsworth arrange. The numbering of the previo and Adam Clarke, present a comparaous census we take to be assumed in tive view of the state of the tribes unthis transaction, and made its basis. der the present and a still later census It will be observed that in every in- recorded ch. 26, which will preclude stance the phrase “according to the the necessity of farther comment upon number of the names” occurs, which a large portion of the chapter. In the we take to imply that the number al-first column the numbers are given in ready ascertained was made use of their decreasing proportion, in the secWhat can be understood, for example, ond the increase of some and the deby the expression predicated of the crease of others will be seen at a glance. tribe of Simeon “numbered according to the number of the names,” especially

Ch. XXVI. when the word for “numbered(peku

1. Judah, .74,600. ..76,500 dâv) is entirely different from that for

2. Dan,.... .62,700........64,400 “number” (mispar)? What is it but an 3. Simeon,.........59,300.. ...22,200 unmeaning tautology? But take the 4. Zebulun, .57,400. ..60,500 term “numbered” here to signify re- 5. Issachar, .54,400. .64,300 viewed, marshalled, arranged, and all is

6. Naphtali, .53,400. ..45,400 clear. In fact, the whole transaction

7. Reuben, .46,500. .43,730 8. Gad,

.45,650. ..40,500 recorded in this chapter, instead of be

9. Asher,.. .41,500. .53,400 ing properly a census appointed for the

10. Ephraim,.. .40,500. .32,500 purpose of ascertaining the numbers of

11. Benjamin, .35,400. .45,600 the host, was undoubtedly an inspec- 12. Manasseh, .32,200. .52,700 tion, ordering and classification of the

Total, 603,550 Tot. 601,730 whole body, on the basis of a prior census, with reference to the order of the Judah, as being the most distinguishmarch and the encampment during the ed, is the most numerous tribe, and sojourn in the wilderness. What else Manasseh the least so, the difference can we infer from the absolute identity between them being no less than 42,400. of the totals here given with that given | But in the subsequent census, ch. 26 ;

25 Those that were numbered 29 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Gad, of them, even of the tribe of Iswere forty and five thousand six sachar, were fifty and four thouhundred and fifty.

sand and four hundred. 26 Of the children of Judah, 30 Of the children of Zebuby their generations, after their lun, by their generations, after families, by the house of their their families, by the house of fathers, according to the number their fathers, according to the of the names, from twenty years number of the names, from old and upward, all that were twenty years old and upward, able to go forth to war; all that were able to go forth to

27 Those that were numbered war; of them, even of the tribe of Ju- 31 Those that were numbered dah, were threescore and four- of them, even of the tribe of teen thousand and six hundred". Zebulun, were fifty and seven

28 Of the children of Issa- thousand and four hundred. char, by their generations, after 32 Of the children of Jotheir families, by the house of seph," namely, of the children heir fathers, according to the of Ephraim, by their generanumber of the names, from twen tions, after their families, by the ty years old and upward, all house of their fathers, according that were able to go forth to to the number of the names, from war ;

twenty years old and upward,

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34, while Judah has the pre-eminence, without regard to units and fractions, it Simeon the third in number before, is not easy to determine. We are inhas become the least, and Manasseh clined, on the whole, to adopt Rosenhas risen to the seventh place. During muller's solution, viz., that as the musthe interval between the two enumera- ter now instituted was in order to select tions seven of the tribes had an in- from the whole body of the people those crease ; five a decrease. Which they that were “able to go forth to war," were and to what extent the change oc- and to marshal them into proper array, curred may be learned from the fore they were accordingly divided, as is going table.--It is remarkable that ex- common in all armies, into divisions of cept in the case of Gad in this chapter, thousands and hundreds, leaving the and Reuben in ch. 26, all the numbers overplus uncounted, even although it are whole or round numbers, beginning may have consisted in some cases of with thousands and ending with hun- those who were twenty years and updredsGad and Reuben alone ending ward. This remainder would constitute with tens. Whether this is to be un- a corps, from which recruits would be derstood as the exact enumeration of taken to supply the places of those who the tribes, in which case a special prov- might die or be otherwise disqualified idence is to be recognized in precluding for military service. This confirms our broken numbers, or whether it was de- previous suggestion: that the object of signed to give simply rourd numbers | the measure here recorded was not

all that were able to go forth to families, by the house of their war;

fathers, according to the number 33 Those that were numbered of the names, from twenty years of them, even of the tribe of old and upward, all that were Ephraim, were forty thousand able to go forth to war; and five hundred.

39 Those that were numbered 34 Of the children of Manas- of them, even of the tribe of Dan, seh, by their generations, after were threescore and two thoutheir families, by the house of sand and seven hundred. their fathers, according to the 40 Of the children of Asher, number of the names, from twen- by their generations, after their ty years old and upward, all that families, by the house of their were able to go forth to war; fathers, according to the number

35 Those that were numbered of the names, from twenty years of them, even of the tribe of old and upward, all that were Manasseh, were thirty and two able to go forth to war; thousand and two hundred.

41 Those that were numbered 36 Of the children of Benja- of them, even of the tribe of min, by their generations, after Asher, were forty and one thoutheir families, by the house of sand and five hundred. their fathers, according to the 42 Of the children of Naphnumber of the names, from twen- tali, throughout their generaty years old and upward, all that tions, after their families, by the were able to go forth to war; house of their fathers, according

37 Those that were numbered to the number of the names, of them, even of the tribe of from twenty years old and upBenjamin, were thirty and five ward, all that were able to go thousand and four hundred.

forth to war; 38 Of the children of Dan, 43 Those that were numbered by their generations, after their of them, even of the tribe of

strictly to make out an exact numerical V. 22–43. The question may perhaps census. This is still farther confirmed be asked, why was it necessary to reby the fact that in every instance of the peat the formula of enumeration in repetition of the language of v. 21, every instance instead of stating in one “those that were numbered of them, comprehensive passage that the tribes even of the tribe of Reuben, were," etc. were all numbered, or that each tribe The Heb. has it, “the numbered of contributed a quota, and the sum them to the tribe of Reuben was,” etc., total was so much? We suggest in reas if setting off or assigning to each from ply that, although it might seem at first the whole or exact number of which view that a revelation from heaven, to it consisted, a certain definite round give all needed knowledge, and yet be number, rejecting the units. This we comprised within reasonable limits, conceive to be the force of the par could not afford to devote space to such ticle to.

repetitions as we find here and else.

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