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were substituted in his place, Gen. 48: 5, 6. 1 Chron. 5:1. 2. Gad is also omitted, as his tribe was virtually merged in that of Judah, Num. 2:10

14.

"Deuel," v. 14, is called "Reuel," ch. 2:14. The similarity of the letter D and R would make the exchange of the one for the other easy.

V. 16. These were the renowned of the congregation. Heb. keruë hâedah, the called ones of the congregation. The original word signifies literally called or named, as if in this instance implying those who were designated by the Lord himself to this function, which would of course have the effect to render them more distinguished and honorable than before. The Latin Vulg. accordingly has "nobilissimi principes multitudinis," most noble princes of the multitude. The Gr. ETIKλNTOL, distinguished, illustrious. In other connections, as Num. 16: 2. 26:9. Ez. 23:23, it is rendered to the same effect, famous and renowned; but for the most part the English words answering to it are called, invited, bidden, and also guests. We may here perhaps unite the two senses, and consider the term as denoting persons renowned for the wisdom of age, and therefore called to consult upon all matters of importance pertaining to the tribes. This is favored by some of the earlier English versions. "Ancient men (or elders)."—Cov. "Counsellors."-Mat. "The called."-Ains. 'They who are called."-Pur. Rabbi Sol. Jarchi says these were the same personages who in Egpyt were beaten by Pharaoh's taskmasters. Ex. 5:14,

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"And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick, both yesterday and to-day, as heretofore?"

of the congregation. From the usage of this term in several instances it would appear that it does not always denote the whole congregation, the entire mass of the Israelitish nation, but the deputies or representatives of the several tribes convened and acting in the name of the whole. Michaelis (Laws of Moses, P. I. art. 45) draws this inference from the fact that while Moses is said to have spoken "to the whole congregation," yet he could not possibly have been heard by one or two millions of people, and therefore he must have addressed himself to a certain number of persons deputed to represent the rest. These persons he understands to be denoted by "the called of the congregation" here mentioned. Syr. "The celebrated of the assembly." This import of a national council or diet, of a representative character, we regard as The context probably the correct one. will generally determine when it bears this sense.- - Princes of the tribes of their fathers. Heb. nesië mattoth, princes or rulers of the tribes. "Captains."-Cov. "Lords."-Mat., Cran. The original is derived from a root signifying to raise, to elevate, and denotes accordingly one who is lifted up and officially preferred above the rest of the people.¶ Heads of the thousands in Israel. Gr. Xiλiapxoi, chiliarchs.

17 And Moses and Aaron took these men which are expressed by their names i :

h

18 And they assembled all the congregation together on the first day of the second month, and they declared their pedigrees after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, by their polls.

k

19 As the LORD command

▲ Rev. 7. 4, etc. i John 10. 3. k ver. 20, etc. I ver. 2.

These "heads" were not only men of note and weight in their tribes, such men as Jethro advised Moses to associate with him in governing the people, Ex. 18:21, but also commanders of the bands or companies of thousands into which the tribes were divided, respecting which see Ex. 18:21, 25. The Heb. term for "thousands" is rendered "families" in Judg. 6:15, though retained in Mic. 5: 2, where it is translated by the Gr. "rulers" or "governors," which rendering is sanctioned by the Spirit of inspiration, as it occurs Mat. 2:6.

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ed Moses, so he numbered them in the wilderness of Sinai,

20 And the children of Reuben, Israel's eldest son, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, by their polls, every male from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

21 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of

or conveyed to aĝovas, tables, denoting a process of registration. As they declared their genealogies, the proper officers took them down. The fair implication is, that in all matters pertaining to the order in which the Lord would have his church arranged, while he in a supreme manner controls and overrules every thing, yet his people are not to forego their own agency, but are to do all in their power to number and arrange themselves.- ¶ By their polls. Heb. "By their skulls." Gr.

"From head to head."

V. 20. And the children of Reuben. Reuben holds the first place, not because his tribe was the most numerous, for in this respect it fell short of several of the others, but from his being the first-born.- -T By their generations, after their families, etc. See on these subdivisions of the tribes the Note on v. 2. above. "Generations" denotes a larger number than "families," and "families" than "houses," while "houses," or households, comprised all the individuals pertaining to each.

V. 21. Those that were numbered of them, etc. Heb. pekudëhem le-mattch re-ubën, the numbered of them to the tribe of Reuben, or more correctly the arranged, the marshalled, the ordered;

Reuben, were forty and six thousand and five hundred.

22 Of the children of Simeon, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, those that were numbered of them, according to the number of the names, by their polls, every male from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

for we still adhere to the view. given above of the purport, in this connection, of the original word. We do not regard it as implying strictly to number, but rather to review, marshal, or arrange. The numbering of the previous census we take to be assumed in this transaction, and made its basis. It will be observed that in every instance the phrase "according to the number of the names" occurs, which we take to imply that the number already ascertained was made use of What can be understood, for example, by the expression predicated of the tribe of Simeon "numbered according to the number of the names," especially when the word for "numbered" (pekudav) is entirely different from that for "number" (mispar)? What is it but an unmeaning tautology? But take the term "numbered" here to signify reviewed, marshalled, arranged, and all is clear. In fact, the whole transaction recorded in this chapter, instead of being properly a census appointed for the purpose of ascertaining the numbers of the host, was undoubtedly an inspection, ordering and classification of the whole body, on the basis of a prior census, with reference to the order of the march and the encampment during the sojourn in the wilderness. What else can we infer from the absolute identity of the totals here given with that given

23 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Simeon, were fifty and nine thousand and three hundred.

24 Of the children of Gad, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

in Ex. 38: 26. In regard to each tribe the object is not to ascertain de novo of how many it consisted, but the number already previously ascertained is merely restated. We here, after Ainsworth and Adam Clarke, present a comparative view of the state of the tribes under the present and a still later census recorded ch. 26, which will preclude the necessity of farther comment upon a large portion of the chapter. In the first column the numbers are given in their decreasing proportion, in the second the increase of some and the decrease of others will be seen at a glance.

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25 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Gad, were forty and five thousand six hundred and fifty.

26 Of the children of Judah, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

27 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Judah, were threescore and fourteen thousand and six hundred".

28 Of the children of Issachar, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twen ty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

m 2 Chr. 17. 14.

34, while Judah has the pre-eminence, Simeon the third in number before, has become the least, and Manasseh has risen to the seventh place. During the interval between the two enumerations seven of the tribes had an increase; five a decrease. Which they were and to what extent the change occurred may be learned from the foregoing table. It is remarkable that except in the case of Gad in this chapter, and Reuben in ch. 26, all the numbers are whole or round numbers, beginning with thousands and ending with hundreds-Gad and Reuben alone ending with tens. Whether this is to be understood as the exact enumeration of the tribes, in which case a special providence is to be recognized in precluding broken numbers, or whether it was designed to give simply round numbers

29 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Issachar, were fifty and four thousand and four hundred.

30 Of the children of Zebulun, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

31 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Zebulun, were fifty and seven thousand and four hundred.

32 Of the children of Joseph," namely, of the children of Ephraim, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward,

n Deut. 33. 17.

without regard to units and fractions, it is not easy to determine. We are inclined, on the whole, to adopt Rosenmuller's solution, viz., that as the muster now instituted was in order to select from the whole body of the people those that were "able to go forth to war," and to marshal them into proper array, they were accordingly divided, as is common in all armies, into divisions of thousands and hundreds, leaving the overplus uncounted, even although it may have consisted in some cases of those who were twenty years and upward. This remainder would constitute a corps, from which recruits would be taken to supply the places of those who might die or be otherwise disqualified for military service. This confirms our previous suggestion: that the object of the measure here recorded was not

all that were able to go forth to

war;

33 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Ephraim, were forty thousand and five hundred.

34 Of the children of Manasseh, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

35 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Manasseh, were thirty and two thousand and two hundred.

36 Of the children of Benjamin, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

37 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Benjamin, were thirty and five thousand and four hundred.

38 Of the children of Dan, by their generations, after their

strictly to make out an exact numerical census. This is still farther confirmed by the fact that in every instance of the repetition of the language of v. 21, "those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Reuben, were," etc. The Heb. has it, "the numbered of them to the tribe of Reuben was," etc., as if setting off or assigning to each from the whole or exact number of which it consisted, a certain definite round number, rejecting the units. This we conceive to be the force of the particle to.

families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

39 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Dan, were threescore and two thousand and seven hundred.

40 Of the children of Asher, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

41 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Asher, were forty and one thousand and five hundred.

42 Of the children of Naphtali, throughout their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war;

43 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of

V. 22-43. The question may perhaps be asked, why was it necessary to repeat the formula of enumeration in every instance instead of stating in one comprehensive passage that the tribes were all numbered, or that each tribe contributed such a quota, and the sum total was so much? We suggest in reply that, although it might seem at first view that a revelation from heaven, to give all needed knowledge, and yet be comprised within reasonable limits, could not afford to devote space to such repetitions as we find here and else

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