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bered that, independently of the increasing population increasing the demand, cotton, from its comparative cheapness, continually usurps the place of some other raw material; this, of course, adds to the consumption. In various manufactures, cotton has already taken the place of linen and fur; but there must eventually be a limit to consumption : and this is certain, that as soon as the supply is so great as to exceed the demand, the price will be lowered by the competition ; and, as soon as the price is by competition so lowered as to render the cost and keeping of the slave greater than the income returned by his labour, then, and not till then, is there any chance of slavery being abolished in the Western States of America. *
The probability of this consummation being brought about sooner is in the expectation
* The return at present is very great in these Western States; the labour of a slave, after all his expenses are paid, producing on an average 300 dollars (£65) per annum to his master.
that the Brazils, Mexico, and particularly the independent State of Texas, will in a few. years produce a crop of cotton which may considerably lower its price. At present, the United States grow nearly, if not more, than half of the cotton produced in the whole world, as the return down to 1831 will substantiate..
Cotton grown all over the world in the years 1821 and
1831; shewing the increase in each country in ten years.
lbs. 180,000,000 385,000,000 Brazil ...
32,000,000 38,000,000 West Indies
10,000,000 9,000,000 Egypt
6,000,000 18,000,000 Rest of Africa
40,000,000 36,000,000 India
175,000,000 180,000,000 Rest of Asia
135,000,000 115,000,000 Mexico and South Ame-?
44,000,000 35,000,000 rica, except Brazil.. } Elsewhere
In the World
The increase of cotton grown all over the world in ten years is therefore 190,000,000 lbs.
Brazil has only increased 6,000,000; Egypt has increased 12,000,000; India, 5,000,000. Africa, West Indies, South America, Asia, have all fallen off; but the defalcation has been made good by the United States, which have increased their growth by 205,000,000 of lbs.*
In the Southern portion of America there are millions of acres on which cotton can be successfully cultivated, particularly Texas, the
Increase of cotton grown in the United States, from the year 1802 to 1831 :Years.
lbs. Years. 1802
55,000,000 1817 ............ 130,000,000 1803
65,000,000 1819 .........167,000,000 1805
70,000,000 1820 ............ 160,000,000 1806
80,000,000 1821 ..........180,000,000 1807 80,000,000 1822
82,000,000 1824 ..215,000,000
85,000,000 1825 .........255,000,000 1811
,000,000 1826 ........300,000,000 1812
75,000,006 | 1827 ............270,000,000 1813
75,000,000 1828 ............325,000,000 1814
70,000,000 1829 ............365,000,000 1815 .........100,000,000 1830 .......350,000,000 1816 ,124,000,000 1831 ............385,000,000
soil of which is so congenial that they can produce 1,000 lb. to the 400 lb. raised by the Americans; and the quality of the Texian cotton is said to be equal to the finest sea island produce. It is to Texas particularly that we must look for this produce, as it can there be raised by white labour ;* and, being so produced, will, as soon as its population increases to a certain extent, be able to undersell that which is grown in America by the labour of the slave.
From circumstances, therefore, Texas, which but a few years since was hardly known as a country, becomes a State of the greatest importance to the civilized and moral world.
I am not in this chapter about to raise the ques
may be asked: How is it, as Texas is so far south, that a white population can labour there? It is because Texas is a prairie country, and situated at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. A sea-breeze always blows across the whole of the country, rendering it cool, and refreshing it notwithstanding the power of the sun's rays. This breeze is apparently a continuation of the trade-winds following the course of the sun.
tion how Texas has been ravished from Mexico.
Miss Martineau, with all her admiration of democracy, admits it to have been “the most highhanded theft of modern times," and the letter of the celebrated Dr. Channing to Mr. Clay has laid bare to the world the whole nefarious transaction. In this letter Dr. Channing points out the cause of the seizure of Texas, and the wish to enrol it among the Federal States.
“ Mexico, at the moment of throwing off the Spanish yoke, gave a noble testimony of her loyalty to free principles, by decreeing, • That no person thereafter should be born a slave, or introduced as such into the Mexican States; that all slaves then held should receive stipulated wages, and be subject to no punishment but on trial and judgment by the magistrate.' The subsequent acts of the government fully carried out these constitutional provisions. It is matter of deep grief and humiliation, that the emigrants from this country, whilst boasting of superior civilization, re