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ple. Their appetite for ardent spirits is stronger than that of the whites owing in a great measure to their manner of living, and especially to their diet. They have also fewer and feebler inducements to counteract the propensity; and by public opinion and fashion as expressed in common practice, and in the declarations of the leading men--they are confirmed in the evil quite as much as our citizens are restrained by similar causes. But worse than all, their ignorance, their indolence, and their poverty have made them the prey of legions of civilized scoundrels,--particularly traders in peltry,—who have supposed themselves interested in making them as sordid and stupid as possible, to induce them to hunt in the first instance, and to rob them of their furs in the second.

The Turtle was no less mortified than incensed by these abuses. He saw his countrymen destroyed and destroying each other every day in peace-and no tribe was more besotted than the Eel-River Miamies—and he saw hundreds of them in war, at one time, surprised and massacred in their cups without resistance, on the very ground still red and wet with his victories. Possibly chagrin was as strong a motive with him as philanthrophy. But however that might be, he devoted himself with his usual energy to the correction of the evil. In 1802 or 1803, he went before the legislature of Kentucky, attended by his friend and interpreter, Captain Wells, and made bis appeal to them in person.

A committee was raised consider the subject, and we believe a law passed to prevent the sale of whiskey to the Indians, as he desired. He also visited the Legislature of Ohio, and made a highly animated address, but in that case obtained nothing but the honor for his pains. His description of the traders was drawn to the life. “They stripped the poor Indians,” he said, “ of skins, gun, blanket, every thing,—while his squaw and the chil dren dependent on him lay starving and shivering in his wigwam."*

* Mss. Documents.

From the following passage in the European (Lon. Jou) Magazine of April, 1802, compiled from American papers, we ascertain that the 'Turtle was also the first to introduce the practice of inoculation for the small por among the Indians, a scourge second only to the one just mentioned. “ Last winter," we are told, there was a grand embassy of Indians to the President and Congress at Washington. Little Turtle was the head-warrior. The President had supplied them with ploughs, spinning-wheels, &c. and to crown all he explained to them how the Great Spirit had made a donation to the white men—first to one in England, (Dr. Jenner) and then to one in America, (Dr. Waterhouse, of Boston, *)/of a means of preventing the small pox. Such a confidence had the copper-colored king in the words of his ‘Father,' that be submitted to be inoculated, together with the rest of the warriors." It further appears that he took a quantity of vaccine matter home with him, which he probably administered in person; and that not long afterwards, fifteen more of his tribe visited the seat of government in pursuit of the same remedy.

We shall conclude our notice of this eminent chieftain, with a few anecdotes preserved by Mr. Dawson.

What distinguished him most, says that writer, was his ardent desire to be informed of all that relates to our institutions; and he seemed to possess a mind capable of understanding and valuing the advantages of civilized life, in a degree far superior to any other Indian of his time. “During the frequent visits which he made to the seat of government, he examined every thing he saw with an inquisitive eye, and never failed to embrace every opportunity to acquire information by inquiring of those with whom he could take that liberty."

Upon his retur.) from Philadelphia, in 1797, he visited Governor Harrison, at that time a captain in the army, and commander at Fort Washington.

* Now of Cambridge.


He told the Captain he had seen many things, which he wished to have explained, but said he was afraid of giving offence by asking too many questions. “My friend here," said he, meaning Captain Wells, the interpreter,“ being about as ignorant as myself, could give me but little satisfaction." He then desired the Captain to inform him how our government was form ed, and what particular powers and duties were exer cised by the two houses of Congress, by the Premident, the Secretaries, &c. Being satisfied on this subject, he told the Captain he had become acquainted with a great warrior while in Philadelphia, in whoso fate he was much interested, and whose history bo wished to learn. This was no other than the immortal Kosciusko: he had arrived at Philadelphia a short time before, and hearing that a celebrated Indian chief was in the city, he sent for him. They were mutually pleased with each other, and the Turtle's visitu were often repeated. When he went to take his final leave of the wounded patriot, the latter presented the Turtle with an elegant pair of pistols, and a splendid robe made of the sea-otter's skin, worth several hundred dollars.

The Turtle now told his host that he wished very much to know in what wars his friend had received those grievous wounds which had rendered him 80 crippled and infirm. The Captain shewed him upon a map of Europe the situation of Poland, and ex. plained to him the usurpations of its territory by the neighboring powers the exertions of Kosciusko to free his country from this foreign yoke-his first victories and his final defeat and captivity. While he was describing the last unsuccessful battle of Kosciusko, the Turtle seemed scarcely able to contain himself. At the conclusion he traversed the room with great agitation, violently flourished the pipe tomahawk with which he had been smoking, and exclaimed, “Let that woman take care of herself”-meaning the Empress Catharine--"this may yet be a dangerous man!"


The Captain explained to the Turtle sotae anec. dotes respecting the Empress and her favorites, cne of whom,—the king of Poland,—had at first beer. hy her elevated to the throne, and afterwards dripen from it. He was much astonished to find that men, and particularly warriors, would submit to a wigo

He said that perhaps if his friend Kosciusko had been a portly, handsome man, he might have better succeeded with her majesty of all the Russias, and might by means of a love-intrigue have obtained that independence for his country, to which his skill and valor in the field had been found unequal.

The Turtle was fond of joking, and was possessed of considerable talent for repartee. In the year 1797, he lodged in a house in Philadelphia, in which was an Irish gentleman of considerable wit, who became much attached to the Indian, and frequently amused himself in drawing out his wit by ood-humored jests. The Turtle and this gentlemen were at that time both sitting for their portraits the former by order of the President of the United States, the picture to be hung up in the war-office-to the celebrated Stewart. The two meeting one morning in the painter's room, the Turtle appeared to be rather more thoughtful than usual. The Irishman rallied him upon it, and affected to construe it into an acknowledgment of his superiority in the jocular contest. “ He mistakes,” said the Turtle to the interpreter, “I was just thinking of proposing to this man, to paint us both on one board, and here I would sta fad to face with him, and confound him to all eternity.”


The Seneca Chief, RED-JACKET-Circumstances under which he succeeded CORN-PLANTER in his influenceAnecdotes of the latter-Red-Jacket's earliest oratori. cal triumph-His speech at the Treaty of Canandai. gua-Account of FARMER'S-BROTHER, and BRANDTRed-Jacket's political and religious principles-Speech to Mr. Alexander, in 1811-Speech to Mr. Richardson-Remarks on the causes of his heathenism in the conduct of the whites-His military career-Speech in favor of declaring war against the British, in 1812 -Seneca Manifesto-Red-Jacket's interview with Washington-His interview with Lafayette ---His Memorial to the New-York Legislature---Speech to a Missionary in 1825--- His deposition and restoration in 1827_Visits to the Atlantic cities---Death and funeral obsequies—Anecdotes.

The Indian orator of modern times, par excellence, was the New-York Chief, Saguoaha, or the KeeperAwake, but by the whites commonly called REDJACKET;

a man who, with whatever propriety he might be entitled "the Last of the Senecas,' has at least transiently renewed, in these latter days, the ancient glory of the Mingoes. “Thy name is princely," -a popular writer has said of him,

- Though no poet's magic Could make Red-Jacket grace an English rhyme, Unless he had a genius for the tragic,

And introduced it in a pantomime;

Yet it is music in the language spoken

Of thine own land; and on her herald-roll, As nobly fought for, and as proud a token

As Cæur-de-Lion's of a warrior's soul.*

* Talisman for 1830.

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