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he had hired himself to his father, the king of Eng land, for the purpose of figlıting against his refractory children, the Long-Knives ; whilst his friends and relations, the Christian Indians, had hired themselves to the Great Spirit, solely for the purpose of performing prayers !” (meaning, attending to religion]-He added, ihat both were right in their way, though both employments could not be connected together. And only yesterday they were told, whilst at Gnadenhutten, that God had instructed all Christian people to love their enemies and even to pray for them! These words, he said, were written in the large book that contained the words and commandments of God! -Now, how would it appear, were we to compel our friends, who love and pray for their enemies, to fight against them!-compel them to act contrary to what they believe to be right !—force them to do that by which they would incur the displeasure of the Great Spirit, and bring his wrath upon them!—That il would be as wrong in him to compel the Christian Indians to quit praying and turn out to fight and kill people, as it would be in them to compel him to lay fighting aside, and turn to praying only!—He had of ten heard it stated, that the believing Indians were Blaves to their teachers, and what these commanded them to do, they must do, however disagreeable to them !Now, (said he) how can this be true, when every Indian is a free man, and can go where he pleases !—Can the teacher stop him from

going away? -No! he cannot !-well! how can he then be made a slave by the teacher!-When we come here among our friends, we see how much they love their teachers.—This looks well Continue, my friends, (said he to the national assistants) in loving your teachers, and in doing all good things; and when your friends and relations come to see you, satisfy their hunger as you have done to us this day !"*

Having taken leave of all who were in the house

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* Narrative nf the Christian Indians.

he proceeded to the middle of the street, from whence he addressed the inhabitants of the place and thanked them for their hospitality, assuring them of his regard and good wishes for them, and adding, that “If at any time they should hear it said, that Pachgantschihilas was an enemy to the believing (Christian) Indians ; they should consider such words as lies!”

The reasoning of the Chieftain speaks for itself. His predictions in regard to the fate of the Christian Delawares, were but too speedily accomplished. But it wis no fault of his; and indeed, in 1783, when Captain Pipe sent word to him not to suffer any of them to leave his territory, he returned answer, with his usual spirit, that he never would prevent them from going to their teachers.

“ And why did you expect them?” he added. “Did I not tell you beforehand, that if you drove the teachers off, the believing Indians would follow them? But you would not listen to me, and now we lose both! Who, think you, is the cause of all the disasters, which have befallen these people! I say you !- You! who threatened them with destruction! You, who instigated the Wyandots to act the treacherous part they did,-agreeing with them, that, as a recompense for their services, they should be entitled to all the plunder they could lay hold of!"

'In Dawson's Memoirs of Harrison, Buckongahelas is mentioned as being present at a council of the chiefs of various tribes, called at Fort Wayne in 1803, for the purpose of ratifying a negotiation for land, already proposed in a former one which met at Vincennes. The Governor carried his point, chiefly by the aid of an influential Miami chief, and by being "boldly seconded in every proposition by the Pottawatamies, who (as Mr. Dawson states,)“ were entirely devoted to the Governor.” It is not our intention here to discuss at length the character of this transaction, which rather belongs to the general history of the period. How the Delaware Chief and the Shawanees understood it,


and how they expressed their sentiments, may be inferred from the following statement of Dawson :

66 When the transaction at the council of VincenDes was mentioned, it called forth all the wrath of the Delawares and the Shawanese. The respected Buck ingehelos so far forgot himself that he interrupted the "Governor, and declared ith vehemence, that nothing that was done at Vincennes was binding upon the In"ilians; that the land which was there decided to be the property of the United States, belonged to the Delawares; and that he had then with him a chief who had been present at the transfer made by the Piankishaws to the Delawares of all the country between the Ohio and White rivers, more than thirty years before. The Shawanese went still further, and behaved with so much insolence, that the Governor was obliged to tell them that they were undutiful and rebellious children, and that he would withdraw his protection from them until they had learnt to behave themselves with more propriety. These Chiefs immediately left the council house in a body."

Subsequently the Shawanees submitted, though it does not appear that Buckongahelas set them the example: and thus, says the historian, the Governor overcame all opposition, and carried his point.

But he did not gain the good will, or subdue the haughty independence of the War-Chief of the Delawares, who, as long as he lived, was at least consistent with himself in his feelings towards the American people. Nor yet was he in the slightest degree servile in his attachment to the British. He was not their instrument or subject, but their ally; and no longer their ally, than they treated him in a manner suitable to that capacity and to his own character.

He was indeed the most distinguished warrior in the Indian confederacy, and as it was the British interest which had induced the Indians to commence, as well as to continue the war, Buckongahelas relied on their support and protection. This support had been given, so far as relates to provisions, arms, and ammuni

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tion; and in the celebrated engagement, on the 20th of August, 1794, which resulted in a complete victory by General Wayne over the combined hostile tribes, there were said to be two companies of British militia from Detroit on the side of the Indians.* But the gates of Fort Mimms being shut against the retreating and wounded Indians, after the battle, opened the eyes of Buckongahelas, and he determined upon an immediate peace with the United States, and a total abandonment of the British. He assembled his tribe and embarked them in canoes, with the design of proceeding up the river, and sending a flag of truce to Fort Wayne. Upon approaching the British fort, he was requested to land, and he did so: “ What have you to say to me?” said he, addressing the officer of the day. It was replied, that the commanding officer wished to speak with him. “Then he may come here,” was the reply. “He will not do that,” said the officer," and you will not be suffered to pass the fort if you do not comply.” “What shall prevent me?" said the intrepid Chief. “These," said the officer, pointing to the cannon of the fort. “I fear not your cannon," replied the Chief. “ After suffering the Americans to defilet your spring, without daring to fire on them, you cannot expect to frighten Buckongahelas;" and he ordered the canoes to push off, and passed the fort.

Never after this would be, like the other chiefs, visit the British, or receive presents from them. “Had the great Buckingehelos lived,” says Mr. Dawson, alluding to these circumstances," he would not have suffered the schemes projected by the Prophet (brother of Tecumseh) to be matured.” And the same writer states, that on his death-bed he earnestly ad

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* Dawson's Memoirs.

* This was spoken metaphorically, to express the con. tempt and insult with which the garrison had been treated by the Americans, for their treachery towards the In. dians who had been their allies.


vised his tribe to rely on the friendship of the United States, and desert the cause of the British. This was in 1804.

It is said of Buckongahelas, that no Christian knight ever was more scrupulous in performing all his engage

Indeed he had all the qualifications of a great hero. His perfect Indian independence, the independence of a noble nature, unperceived to itself, and unatsected to others,—is illustrated by an authentic anecdote which will bear repetition.

In the year 1785, he was present, with many other chiefs of various tribes, at a treaty negotiated by order of Congress at Fort Mc'Intosh on the Ohio river. When the peace-chiefs had addressed the Commissioners of the United States, who were George Rogers Clark, Arthur Lee, and Richard Butler, the two latter of whom he did not deigu to notice, approaching General Clark and taking him by the hand, he thus addressed him: “I thank the Great Spirit for having this day brought together two such great warriors as Buckongahelas and General Clark."* The sentiment reminds one of the Little-Carpenter's address to Mr. Bartram:—“I am Attakullakulla ;-did you know it?"

* Dawson's Memoirs

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