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Observations on the character of White-Eyes-Pipe ,

comment on his death-The latter gains and sustains an ascendancy in the Delaware nation-Glickkican, Netawatwees and Wingemund-Subsequent career of Pipe-Joins the British and fights against the Americans-Grand Indian council at Detroit—Pipe's spirited speech on that occasion-Makes charges against the Missionaries, but fails to prove them- Remarks on his habits, principles and talents. The fact that Captain Pipe and his associates began to gain the ascendancy in the Delaware nation immediately on the death of his great antagonist, and that they afterwards supported it with alınost uninterrupted success, is alone sufficient to indicate the influence and character of White-Eyes. Indeed, Pipe himself paid to his memory the compliment of declaring, with a solemn air, that “the Great Spirit had probably put him out of the way, that the nation might be saved. That sagacious personage was well aware that neither Kill-Buck, nor Big-Cat, nor *Glickkican, nor even

* The sight of a gun-barrel,' and afterwards baptised by the Moravians, and named Isaac. He was Chief Coun eillor and Speaker of the old Sachem, PAKANKE, who ruled over the Delawares at Kaskaskunk (in Ohio,) and was a man of uncommon military and oratorical talent. After his own christianization, he was a highly efficient advocate and patron of the Christian party. Having thereby, as well as by his spirit and influence, become obnoxious to their enemies during the Revolution, sev. eral attempts were made to overawe, bribe and destroy him; but they all failed. At length a considerable party was fitted out, in 1781, for the express purpose of taking him prisoner. They found him at Salem, but doubt. ing whether the old warrior's pacific principles would as sure their safety, they dared rot enter tis hut. He saw

all together, would adequately occupy the station of the deceased Chieftain.

White-Eyes was distinguished as much for his milder virtues as for his courage and energy; and as to his friendly disposition towards the Americans, particularly, on which some imputations were industriously thrown by his enemies, we could desire ne better evidence of its sincerity than are still extant. In that curious document, the Journal of Frederic Post,* who, as early as 1758, was sent among the Ohio Delawares by the Governor of one of the States, for the purpose of inducing them to renounce the French alliance, is recorded, the “speech' which Post carried back, and the closing paragraphs of which were as follows: “ Brethren, when you have settled this


and friendship, and finished it well, and you send the great peace-belt to me, I will send it to all the nations of my colour; they will all join to it, and we all will hold it fast.

“ Brethren, when all the nations join to this friendship, then the day will begin to shine clear over us.

some of them before long from a window, and instantly stepped out, and called to them. •Friends !' said he, by your maneuvres I conclude you are come for me. If so, why do you hesitate ;-Obey your orders ; I arn ready to submit. You seem to fear old Glickkican. Ah! there was a time when I would have scorned to submit to such cowardly slaves. But I am no more Glickkican, I am Isaac, a believer in the true God, and for his sake I will suffer anything, even death.' Seeing them still hesitate, he stepped up to them with his hands placed upon his back.

There ! he continued, you would tie me if you dared-tie me, then, and take me with youI am ready.' They now mustered courage to do as he directed. Soon after, Glickkican was murdered, with a large number of his Christian countrymen, by a banditti of American ruffians who suspected, or pretended to suspect them, of hostile designs. Probably the result was brought about by the machinations of his Indian enemies.

* In Proud's History of Pennsylvania.

When we hear once more of you, and we join togeth er, then the day will be still, and no wind, or storm, will come over us, to disturb us.

“Now, Brethren, you know our hearts, and what we have to say; be strong, if you do what we have now told you, and in this peace all the nations agree to join. Now, Brethren, let the king of England know what our mind is as soon as possibly you can.”

Among the subscribers to this speech appears the name of White-Eyes, under the form of the Indian term Cochguacawkeghton; nor have we met with any proof that he ever from that time wavered for a moment in his attachment to the American interest, as opposed first to the French, and afterwards to the English. Post himself, in 1762, was permitted to build a house on the banks of the Muskingum, where he had a lot of land given him, about a mile distant from the village of White-Eyes; and so, when Heckewelder first visited that country, during the same season, he informs us that, the War-Chief Koguethagechtan,' kindly entertained and supplied him and his party

About the beginning of the Revolutionary war, when some of the Indians were much exasperated by murders and trespasses which certain civilized ruffians committed on the frontiers, an Ohio trader was met and massacred in the woods by a party of Senecas, who, having in their rage cut up the body and garnished the bushes with the remains, raised the scalp-yell and marched off in triumph. White-Eyes being in the vicinity and hearing the yell, instantly commenced a search for the body, the remnants of which he collected and buried. The party returned on the following day, and observing what had been done, privately opened the grave, and scattered the contents more widely than before. But White-Eyes was this time on the watch for them. He repaired to the spot again the moment they left it, succeeded in finding every part of the mangled body, and then carefully interred it in a grave dug with his own hands, where it was at length suffered to repose unmolested.


It was about the same time when this affair tiappened, that the Chieftain saved the life of one Duncan, an American peace-messenger, whom he had undertaken to escort through a section of the wilderness. A hostile Shawanee was upon the point of discharging his musket at Duncan from behind a tree, when WhiteEyes rushed forward, regardless of his own peril, and compelled the savage to desist. In 1777, Heckewelder had occasion to avail himself of a similar kind.

Rather rashly, as he acknowledges, he that year undertook to traverse the forests from the Muskingum to Pittsburg, wishing to visit his English friends in that quarter. White-Eves resided at a distance of seventeen miles, but hearing of his intended journey, be immediately came to see him, accompanied by another Chief named WINGEMUND,* and by several of his young men.

These, he said, his good friend, the Missionary, should have as an escort. And moreover he must needs go himself: “He could not suffer me to go," says that gentlemen, “ while the Sandusky warriors were out on war-excursions, without a proper escort and himself at my side.” And it should be observed, that besides the Sandusky savages, there were several other tribes who had already engaged on the British side, and were spreading death and desolation along the whole of the American frontier. The party set out together, and reached their destination in safety. An alarm occurred only on one occasion, when the scouts discovered a suspicious track, and report was made av cordingly. White-Eyes, who was riding before his friend, while Wingemund brought up the rear, turned about and asked if he felt afraid? “No!” said the Missionary,“not while you are with me.” “You are right,” quickly rejoined White-Eyes ? “You are right; no man shall harm you, till I am laid prostrate." Nor even then,” added Wingeinund,“ for they must conquer me also they must lay us side by side.” Mr. Hecke

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"A noted religious impostor.

welder certainly did them but justice in believing that both would have redeemed their promises.

The other Moravians, and the Indian Congregation under their charge in Ohio, were still more indebted to the good Chieftain. Loskiel states,* that in 1774, the Christian party had become obnoxious to a majority of the Pagan Delaware chiefs, and it was several times proposed to expel them by force. But God brought their counsel to nought, he adds, "and appointed for this purpose the first Captain among the Delawares, called White-Eyes," who kept the chiefs and council in awe, and would not suffer them to injure the Missionaries. Finding his efforts still unavailing, he at length went so far as to separate himself wholly from his opponents, resolved to renounce power, coun try and kindred for the sake of these just and benevolent men whom he could not bear to see persecuted.

His firmness met with a deserved success. Even the old Chief Netawatwees, who had opposed him most fiercely, acknowledged the injustice which had been done him; and not only changed his views in re gard to the Christians, but published his recantation in presence of the whole council. White-Eyes then again came forward, and repeated a proposal for a national regulation to be made-whereby the Christians should be specially put under the Delaware protectionwhich had formerly been rejected. It was prompt ly agreed to, and the act was passed. The old Chief tain expressed great joy on that occasion;"I am ar old man," said he, “ and know not how long I may live I therefore rejoice, that I have been able to make this act. Our children and grand-children will reap

the benefit of it,-and now I am ready to die whenever God pleases.”+

History of the Missions of the United Brethren, &c London, 1794.

He died at Pittsburg in 1776, much lamented by the Delawares and many neighboring nations.

“ This wise man,” says. Loskiel, spared no pains to conciliate tho affection of all his neighbors. He sent frequent embar

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