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accompanying achieved actions activities acts adaptation adjustments admitted altruism amount arises becomes belief benefit better body bring called carried caused changes chapter claims co-operation comes complete conceived conception concerned conclusion conduct consciousness consequences considered constituted continue course creatures definite depends desires developed direct effects efforts egoistic entailed equal Ethics evils evolution evolved existence experience fact feelings follows functions further give given gratification greater happiness higher highest human ideal ideas immediate implied increase individual involved kind labour less lives maintained means ment moral nature needs observe organization origin pains pass performance physical pleasures possible present principle produce prompt pursuit reached recognize regard relations relative requirements respect satisfaction sense shown social society structures suffering Suppose sympathy theory things thought tion truth ultimate welfare wrong yield
Página 52 - For where no covenant hath preceded, there hath no right been transferred, and every man has right to every thing; and consequently, no action can be unjust. But when a covenant is made, then to break it is unjust: and the definition of INJUSTICE, is no other than the not performance of covenant. And whatsoever is not unjust, is just.
Página 123 - ... I believe that the experiences of utility organized and consolidated through all past generations of the human race have been producing corresponding nervous modifications, which, by continued transmission and accumulation, have become in us certain faculties of moral intuition — certain emotions responding to right and wrong conduct, which have no apparent basis in the individual experiences of utility.
Página 20 - Ethics has for its subjectmatter, that form which universal conduct assumes during the last stages of its evolution.
Página 83 - We found it was no more possible to frame ethical conceptions from which the consciousness of pleasure, of some kind, at some time, to some being, is absent, than it is possible to frame the conception of an object from which the consciousness of space is absent. And now we see that this necessity of thought originates in the very nature of sentient existence. Sentient existence can evolve only on condition that pleasure-giving acts are lifesustaining acts.
Página 215 - From the dawn of life, then, egoism has been dependent upon altruism as altruism has been dependent upon egoism ; and in the course of evolution the reciprocal services of the two have been increasing.
Página 46 - So that no school can avoid taking for the ultimate moral aim a desirable state of feeling called by whatever name — gratification, enjoyment, happiness. Pleasure somewhere, at some time, to some being or beings, is an inexpugnable element of the conception. It is as much a necessary form of moral intuition as space is a necessary form -of intellectual intuition.
Página 52 - Therefore before the names of just, and unjust can have place, there must be some coercive power, to compel men equally to the performance of their covenants, by the terror of some punishment, greater than the benefit \J they expect by -the breach of their covenant...
Página 123 - To make any position fully understood, it seems needful to add that, corresponding to the fundamental propositions of a developed Moral Science, there have been, and still are, developing in the race, certain fundamental moral intuitions j and that, though these moral intuitions are the results of accumulated experiences of Utility, gradually organized and inherited, they have come to be quite independent of conscious experience.