Imágenes de páginas

25. Snowdoun's Knight is Scotland's King. Scott quotes, in a note, several instances of adventures that befell James V. when wandering in disguise, in some of which a similar revelation of his real position followed. See Tales of a Grandfather, First Series, vol. iii.

XXVII. 29. Infidel, i.e. unbeliever, doubter.

XXVIII. 7. General eye, i.e. the eye of the public.

17. Snowdoun.

"William of Worcester, who wrote about the middle of the fifteenth century, calls Stirling Castle Snowdoun."-Scott. XXIX. 9. The grace of, i.e. pardon for.

Harp of the North, farewell. Lockhart quotes a less formal farewell, addressed to the printer with the last batch of proofs: "I send the grand finale, and so exit the Lady of the Lake from the head she has tormented for six months."


(Where a word is used more than once in The Lady of the Lake, the reference is to the first line in which it occurs.)

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Affray (111. xiv. 19)=(1) alarm, (2) struggle. Fr. effrayer=to frighten. Low L. exfridare, from L. ex=out of, and Teutonic Frithru=peace. Cp. A. S. frith. To affray therefore means originally to put out of peace, and so to attack or frighten. Past part. ' afraid.'

Agen (11. xix. 9)=the old form of again, used in modern times only in poetry.

Aghast (III. iii. 13)=terrified. A. S. a, and gæstan to terrify. From same root come 'ghastly' and 'ghost.'

Amain (1. viii. 20)=with full force. A. S. prefix a=on or with, and main (A. S. magen) = strength. Cp. Milton, Lycidas, 111, ‘The golden opes, the iron shuts amain.'

Ambuscade (v. viii. 4)=a body of soldiers lying in wait, an ambush. Through Sp. from Low L. Imbuscare, from In and boscus= a wood, a word of Scand. origin. Cp. 'bosky.'

Anathema (III. viii. 20)=curse, esp. a curse pronounced by some Church Authority. Gk. ȧváleμaa thing devoted or separated, and so a thing accursed. See Rom. ix. 3.

Antler'd (1. ii. 3)=furnished with antlers, or branching horns. The antler (O. Fr. antoiller) was originally the first branch of the horn. L. ante oculum-before the eye.

Arcade (VI. xxv. 25)=a gallery consisting of a series of arches. Fr. arcade from L. arcus=a bow.

Arraignment (v. vi. 1)=accusation. To arraign (O. Fr. arraigner)= to summon to court to answer an accusation. L. ad=to, and rationes =reasons, pleadings.

Aspen (1. xii. 12)=the trembling poplar. The name of the tree was originally asp, aspen being an adjective derived from it, as in 'aspen leaf.'

Astound (II. xxxi. 17)=astonished, distracted. A form of astonied, past part. of M. E. astone or astony, from same root as stun. 'Astonish' is a later form of the same word.

Augury (IV. iv. 6)=a divination, an attempt to discover future events. The Roman augurs were men who professed to predict the future. The name augur is perhaps derived from L. avis (=a bird), the flight of birds being one of the signs which the augurs used.

Avouch (IV. vi. 16)= assert, declare. Older form 'vouch' as in 'vouchsafe.' Through Fr. from L. vocare to call or summon. Vouch or avouch=(1) to summon to one's aid, as a vassal summoned his lord, (2) to acknowledge, or act as surety for anyone, as the lord became surety for his vassal, (3) to testify or assert a fact.

Ban (III. vii. 29)= curse. Originally any proclamation, as in banns of marriage. A. S. bannan=to summon.

Banditti (v. xxxi. 12)=robbers. Ital. bandito from bandire=to proscribe, or outlaw. Low L. bannire. Cp. 'Ban.'

Barret-cap (VI. x. 25) or barret a kind of cap worn by soldiers. Low L. barretum. Diminutive of L. birrus an overcoat. Cp. Lay of the Last Minstrel, III. xvi. 12:

"Old England's sign, St George's cross,

His barret-cap did grace."

Battalia (VI. xvi. 6)= =an army drawn up in order of battle; used especially of the main body of an army as distinguished from the wings. L. batalia a battle. Cp. 'battalion.'


Batten (IV. xxiii. 25)=to grow fat. Scand. batna to grow better, from same root as 'better.' Used transitively by Milton, Lycidas, 29,— Battening their flocks'-but properly intransitive as here.

Bay (1. iii. 5)=(1) to bark or cry out; (2) the attitude of an animal standing as if about to cry out, and so (3), as in I. vii. 3, and in the expression 'stand at bay,' the attitude of a man or animal turning to face his pursuers. M. E. abayen. Through Fr. perhaps from L. ad=to and baubari to bark. In any case the word is probably imitative in origin.

Bead (1. xv. 20)=(1) a prayer. (A. S. biddan = to ask.) So in

expression 'bid your beads;' (2) the small balls threaded on a rosary by which prayers are counted, as in I. xv. 20; and so (3) in the modern


Beaker (vI. ii. 17)=a drinking vessel, or tumbler. Through L. from Gk. BikoS =a wine vessel.

Beck (v. ix. 19)=a nod, especially, as here, a nod of command. The substantive first appears in the sixteenth century, and is formed from the verb 'to beck,' itself a contraction of 'beckon.' A. S. beácen =a sign.

Beetled (II. xxxi. 3)=jutted out, overhung. A. S. bitel (=sharp biting) appears in expression bitelbrowed or beetle-browed, i.e. with eyebrows projecting like an upper jaw. First applied to cliffs by Shakespeare, Hamlet, I. iv. 71:

"The dreadful summit of the cliff

That beetles o'er its base into the sea.'" ""

Blench (II. XXX. 19)=to start back, flinch. A. S. blencanto make to blink. Cp. drench (IV. xxix. 14)='make to drink,' and so 'soak.' Blithe (1. xvi. 1)=cheerful, happy, probably connected with A. S. blican to shine.




Boding (III. vii. 20) = foretelling. A. S. bodian to foretell. rally used, as here, of the foretelling of evil. Cp. for similar introduction of sense of evil 'ominous.'

Boon (1. xii. 1)=gracious, bountiful.

Fr. bon. Cp. Thomson,

Liberty, "all that boon nature could luxuriant pour," and Milton,
Paradise Lost, IV. 242.
The word survives in a boon companion.'
Boon a favour, is a different word.

Bootless (II. xxx. 27)=useless, profitless; boot=advantage, profit.

A. S. bot, from same root as 'better.'

Bosk a wood, from same

Bosky (III. xiv. 23)=bushy, woody. original root as bush, which originally meant a thicket. Cp. Lord of the Isles, V. xvi. 33, "Well known bosk and dell."

Boune (IV. viii. 8)=prepared; the same word as bound (prepared to go), as in the expression 'homeward bound' or 'A chieftain to the Highlands bound.'

Bourgeon (II. xix. 7) or burgeon=bud. Fr. bourgeon=a young bud; from a Teutonic or Gaelic root meaning an elevation. Cp. Spenser, Faerie Queene, VII. vii. 43:

"Before the pride

Of hasting Prime did make them burgein round." Bourne (IV. xvi. 15) or Burn a stream. A. S. burna probably

from a root byrnan=to burn, and applied to a rushing stream owing to its resemblance to boiling water. Cp. the frequent poetical use of the same metaphor, as in Marmion, Int. II. 105, 'All his eddying currents boil.'

Bout (IV. iii. 11)=(1) a thrust, (2) an event taking place at intervals, as, e.g., a drinking-bout, (3) as here, a contest. Etymologically the same word as 'butt,' from O. G. root. Cp. O. Fr. bot.

Brae (III. xxii. 21)=a slope or hill. A Scotch word: derivation uncertain, probably connected with A. S. bru from which comes 'brow.'

Brake (1. vii. 16) rough land covered with brushwood, (2) a fern that grows in wild country (bracken-fern). Connected with Dutch braai and German brach=unploughed. From same original root as 'break.' Brand (1. xxviii. 5)=(1) a torch; (2) a sword, because it flashes like a torch. A. S. brinnan= to burn.

Brawl (v. xxviii. 17)=a quarrel. Welsh brawl or brol (a boast) probably = braggle, a frequentative of brag, itself a word of Gaelic origin.

Brawny (v. xxiii. 16)=muscular, strong. The old meaning of brawn was muscle, so (2) flesh, especially the flesh of the boar. Skeat connects with a root meaning to 'boil,' from which comes 'brew.'

Brindled (I. xxvii. 18)=streaked with colour (as though burnt), a variant of brinded (cp. ‘the brinded cat,'—Macbeth, IV. i. 1) and branded, from A. S. brinnan≈ to burn.

Brook (1. xxviii. 7)=to endure, and so, as here, to be strong enough. Still used in the expression 'to brook an insult.'

Buckler (III. v. 12)=a shield, usually one made of wicker-work covered with skin. O. F. bocler, so called from the bocle or boss in the centre of the shield. Low. L. bucula from L. buccula, diminutive of

bucca a cheek.

Buffet (v. xxv. 33)=a blow, especially a blow on the cheek. O. Fr. bufet, connected with O. E. bobet, diminutive of bob=a blow, and with L. bucca a cheek. All from an original root meaning to 'puff,' and so connected with the cheek.

Bully (vi. v. 17)=rough, noisy; connected with Dutch bulderen= to roar. From same root comes 'bull.'

Burden (Int. I. 17)= the refrain of a song. O. Fr. bourdon 'the hum of a bee.' A word of imitative origin, like 'buzz.'

Burgher (v. xxi. 28)=a citizen. 'Burgh' or 'borough' meant originally a fort; from A. S. beorgan to defend; then a walled town. Burly (v. xix. 11) tall, stately, now used generally in a slightly

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