Massachusetts Institute of Technology., 1914
Reprinted papers, which have appeared in various scientific and technical journals.
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according actual amount appears assist authorities Average bacteria become Board body carried cent character chemical chief co-operation coefficient cold communities concentration considerable considered cultures danger death-rates deaths definite determined disease disinfection districts division educational effect efficiency evidence examination experiments fact factor figures further give given greater Health Department important increase indicated infection inspection inspectors interest kind less Massachusetts material matter means measure method milk mortality natural necessary nuisance obtained officer organisms oxygen patient period persons Phelps police pollution population possible practical present problem proper public health quarantine question reason recommended record referred relation relative requirement rural sanitary sewage statistics storage stream supply taken temperature tion towns true tuberculosis types typhoid fever urban various varying writer York
Página 160 - Latin rus, country) signifies strictly "of or pertaining to the country as distinguished from a city or town." A secondary meaning at once suggested by the primary one is "agricultural" — the first describing the place, the second the occupation of the inhabitants. It becomes necessary, therefore, to rule out from any group of rural communities all having essentially " city " conditions. The chief of these conditions, from the epidemiological standpoint, are...
Página 146 - Table showing relative mortality for Ten Years from Typhoid Fever in persons above five years of age, in the larger and smaller Cities and Towns. There can be no doubt that typhoid in Massachusetts, is a disease of scattered communities rather than of crowded towns, of rural rather than of urban districts. In spite of the smaller mortality from all causes, typhoid is more destructive in the farming towns than in the manufacturing towns and the large cities.
Página 160 - Registrar-General of Scotland, the division into rural and urban is equally arbitrary, in the former case by political, in the latter by sanitary, districts; although by special inquiry we have found that the lines in both these two cases are drawn at about 2,000 population. In the study by Dr. SW Abbott, published in the Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health for 1891, a different method is used, various degrees of density of population by area being used as a basis. In no case, however,...
Página 157 - US Surgeon LL Lumsden stated: " In the United States the rate of prevalence of typhoid fever is higher in the rural sections than in the cities and a city, surrounded by and obtaining its food supplies from a section of the country in which the typhoid rate is high, will have a high typhoid rate."4 F.
Página 149 - Most of them have a steadily increasing population, a large proportion of which consists of immigrants, either of European nativity or from the British North American provinces. In many of the towns of this class there is a rural population of considerable size living in those portions outside the more densely settled villages. The actual increase in population in the rural towns, for the period of twenty years, between the census of 1870 and that of 1890, a period nearly coincident with that under...
Página 5 - ... attainment of their co-operation, (3) the collection and recording of suitable histories of all cases of communicable disease, and (4) the scientific study and interpretation of these records by a competent epidemiologist. Respectfully submitted, (Signed) JR COMMONS, Director. (Signed) BM RASTALL, Director. (Signed) LS EVERTS, Director. DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES SECTION I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Introductory The most important work of a health department is the control and prevention...