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A TREATISE

ON

ORAL DEFORMITIES

AS

A BRANCH OF MECHANICAL SURGERY.

BY

NORMAN W. KINGSLEY, M. D. S., D.D.S.,

PRESIDENT OF TUE BOARD OF CENSORS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, LATE DEAN OF
TUE NEW YORK COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND PROFESSOR OF DENTAL ART AND
MECHANISM, MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DENTAL SCIENCE,
OF THE ODONTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA, AND OF

THE ODONTOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, ETC.

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NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
1, 3, AND BOND STREET.

1880.

COPYRIGHT BY

NORMAN W. KINGSLEY.

1879.

PREFACE.

This work was begun ten years since, and in its substantial features was ready for the press some time ago ; publication was deferred in order to make the whole more scientifically complete, but I realize that it is useless to wait until a reversal of opinion on some topics is rendered impossible. In the mean time, I have revised and rewritten the whole, and have endeavored to make it the embodiment of the latest knowledge upon the different subjects treated.

Since the act was passed by the New York Legislature in 1868 creating a Board of Censors, I have been the member of that Board upon whom devolved the duty of examining dentists upon these branches.

It has been exceptional that I found any one possessing more than the most elementary knowledge, and the examinations were necessarily wanting in desirable thoroughness because there existed no source from which they could readily obtain the required knowledge ; the meager and inadequate instruction of the text-books could only be augmented by a tedious search through journals and voluminous society transactions for scattered contributions to such literature.

Only upon the subject of Maxillary Fractures has there been heretofore any approximation to completeness ; even the works of Hamilton and Heath, while containing all that the

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