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general surgeon requires, are not of equal value to the special surgeon or dentist.

In the department of Irregularities, a number of illustrations have been introduced which the superficial reader may regard as excessive or confusing, but each was found to possess some valuable principle, or was introduced to contrast its complexity with simpler methods, and prevent "a wasteful expenditure of time in the contrivance of useless apparatus.'

A critical reader may detect here and there repetitions, but I regarded the knowledge of so much importance in another connection as to justify an occasional reiteration.

When I began practice in certain specialties herein treated, there was almost no literature upon the subject, and I was obliged to invent nearly every process which I used. The appliances and the methods of treatment are therefore to a large extent original with me; nevertheless, I have not hesitated to adopt, from any source at my command, any and all different methods which had anything in them to commend them. Hamilton very truly says, “It is not in the discovery and multiplication of mechanical expedients that the surgeon of this day declares his superiority, so much as in the skillful and judicious employment of those which are already invented.”

I have endeavored to treat these topics with such comprehensiveness that it will not be necessary for any one else to go over the same ground until the progress of science shall make these teachings obsolete.

It has been my desire to present this information in such form that it shall interest and profit, not only the student but the practitioner of dentistry and general surgery.

PREFACE.

I doubt if any of my readers will ever be more profoundly conscious of my shortcomings than myself.

To Dr. St. George Elliott, of 39 Upper Brook Street, London, I am much indebted for valuable assistance in the preparation of the chapters on Fractures. His large experience as an army surgeon and his subsequent dental practice in North America, South America, and Japan, rendered him eminently qualified for such a work.

The chapter on Anatomy and Physiology of Expression is, to a considerable extent, an epitome of Sir Charles Bell's work on that subject. I prepared such an article for publication a few years since, not knowing at the time that the late Professor McQuillen had published a similar paper. Upon a conference with him, and by his consent before his death, I have adopted much of his language in my chapter under that title.

If the knowledge herein contained and the plans proposed for treatment shall prove beneficial to needy humanity, and save the practitioner the intensity of thought which they have cost the author, I shall be more than satisfied.

NORMAN W. KINGSLEY. NEW YORK, December, 1879.

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MECHANICAL FORCES USED IN REGULATING TEETH.

OASES FROM PRAOTICE IN REGULATING TEETH.

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