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of gravitation, and gave to the world his grand description of the heavens. But it was not till 1752 that the work of these men of science and philosophy began to bear active fruit, and that modern theological criticism commenced, notably with Astruc's examination of the Biblical legend of special creation.
In 1773 public attention was drawn to the discrepancies existing in the two accounts of “creation ” by the publication of Brydon's Travels. In 1775 Werner called attention to the importance of the study of geology; and in 1788. Hutton published his Theory of the Earth, and Buffon came into collision with the clergy through the publication of his geological researches and opinions, being compelled, like Galileo, to make a formal retractation of them, though they are now accepted as true. In 1801 Lamarck presented a new science—“Biology”--to the world ; and in 1832 Liebig discovered chloroform. In 1843 Joule gave the results of his experiments on the mechanical equivalent of heat, which, in 1849, enabled Helmholtz to propound the newly-discovered doctrine of the “conservation of energy.” In 1847 the first publication appeared on palæontology, by a French physician, Boucher de Perthes, in which the old theological theory of the recent origin of man was questioned, and the first link forged in the chain establishing the great antiquity of man. In 1858 Herbert Spencer published his first essay on the great doctrine of Evolution, since which he has, with untiring energy, given to the world, in a series of publications-First Principles, Biology, Psychology, and Sociology—the most perfect synthesis of philosophy that it would appear possible for the mind of man to conceive. . In 1859 Charles Darwin published his Origin of Species. It was not, however, till 1872 that Bishop Colenso
so heroically took up the work commenced by Astruc, and published his famous work on the Pentateuch.
Great, then, must be our sense of gratitude, not only to these pioneers of science and freedom of opinion, who, by their works, have so nobly and so bravely risked opprobrium and struggled against the power of ecclesiasticism and the despotism of custom, but to the large number of witnesses who in other ways — by imprisonment, by pecuniary losses, or by injury to fair fame and reputation-have fought for liberty and freedom against deep-rooted prejudice and erroneous and superstitious teaching. Among these we may specially mention the names of the late Thomas Henry Huxley and Charles Bradlaugh, to both of whom we owe a deep sense of gratitudeto the former for his relentless protest against positive creeds and theological dogmas and for his untiring devotion to science; to the latter for the firm and implacable attitude he so stoutly maintained against a powerful Government, and which resulted in the establishment of the right of affirmation in lieu of the old and superstitious administration of oaths. These pioneers of science and liberty have given us truths for legends; have discovered and demonstrated satisfactorily what ecclesiasticism, after many centuries of trial and opportunity failed to do-have given correct explanations of the phenomena of nature, and have taught correct theories of the universe and its order.
The author takes this opportunity of expressing his acknowledgments to those authors from whose published works he has quoted, or to which he has referred.
W. W. H.
Theology, Ecclesiasticism, Clericalism.
Destroyed by Fire-Ezra Re-writes the Burnt Pentateuch from
Anonymity of the N. T. Writings—The Manufacture of Gospels
Miracles of Great Antiquity-Bred of Ignorance and Supersti-