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Titles preserve old ideas and connect modern worship of gods with the ancient worship of the sun and moon. In the same way that the ruling sovereign of Egypt was the living image and vicegerent of the Christian triune God, and the Pope of Rome, “vicar” of the same, in imperial edicts Roman emperors were styled “Nostra Divinitas," Nostra Perenitas," and "Nostra Eternitas.Theodosius and Valentinian were addressed as “Vestrı Numen" (your godhead); the Emperor of China is “His Celestial Majesty," “Brother of the Sun and Moon "; and the Sultan of Turkey, as Kalif, is “The Shadow of God on earth.”.

It is not difficult to trace some of the zodiacal references in the 0. T. In Job (xxxviii. 31, 32) we read : “Canst thou influence the Pleiades [the seven stars), or loose the bands of Orion? Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth the twelve signs of the zodiac] in his season ?" Solomon worshipped Ashtaroth (Astarte), Chemosh, and Moloch, and there is plenty of further evidence to show that the Jews were worshippers of a plurality of gods; Iahuh or Yahuh (Jehovah) being simply the tribal god. Psalm lxxxii. says : “God standeth in the congregation of the mighty ones [gods]; he judgeth among the gods.The two “angels” who appeared at Lot's house at Sodom (Gen. xix. 1) are literally translated gods.” And the fact of the use of the plural word elohim, or aleim, in the first chapter of Genesis, which means “gods," and the constant allusion to the human attribute of jealousy in connection with the chief god Yahuh, is conclusive in showing that the Hebrew tribes were worshippers of more than one god. But it appears to have been a primary object with the translators to suppress this fact. In Judges (xi. 30) we find that the name “ Moses " has been suppressed and “ Manasseh " inserted, in order to prevent the reader from being made aware of the fact that the descendants of Moses worshipped other gods than Yahuh. Psalm lxxxiv. II says : “For the Lord God [Yahuh of the gods] is ir sun.Psalm Ixviii. is positively a song to the Sun-God! It opens with the invocation, "Let God arise” (literally—“Let the Mighty One arise”), and bids all inferior creatures “cast up a highway for him that rideth through the heavens by his name Iah (or Yah).” The frequent references to sun-gods under various names are all disguised in the English version. The idea of the Jew writer in the above was evidently

taken from the Egyptian “Book of the Dead,” where we read in the prayers to Osiris : “I adore the sun in the happy west......A path has been made for me. Glory, glory, to Osiris.” In another to Amen-Ra we find : “Hail to thee, Amen-Ra; Lord of the thrones of the earth ; Chief in Ap-Tu [Thebes, and No of the 0. T.], Lord of Truth ; Father of gods ; Maker of Man ; Creator of Beasts...... Sailing in heaven in tranquillity,” etc.

We have seen that the primitive Christians worshipped the sun as Serapis, who was represented under the emblem of a serpent, and to whom Jesus is made to compare himself in John (iii 14). Two Christian sects of Armenia and Syria—the Jezides (or followers of Jesus) and the Shemsi (or Solars)—worship the sun to this day Remains of sun worship are to be seen still among Christians, in their sacred day (Sunday), their praying to the east (the early Christians never prayed without turning to that point of the compass where the sun rose), and the frequent use of the word “glory,” and of the “Nimbus” and “ Tonsure.” The Emperor Hadrian accused the Christians of being sun worshippers, and Tertullian admits that they were only looked upon as such.

The name given to the sun by the Oracle of Claros in Macrobius (Sat. 1.i., cap. xviii.) was IAO (YAO). “Jehovah," or, more correctly, “Yahuh," was the chief of the gods (Aleim), the tribal god or Ruler of the Hebrews, another sun-god. The name was of very ancient date; it was known among the Assyrians, Semites, Phoenicians, and the Egyptians, and was worshipped at Thebes. As there were no vowels or stops in ancient Hebrew, the name rendered as Jehovahwhich does not convey any idea of the correct pronunciation—might be written many different ways. The name consisted of the letters corresponding with I or Y, H, U or V, H, and may be read YAHUH, YAHWEH, or YAHVEH; but the first is the correct reading, as is shown by its being sometimes written Yeho and Yahu, as is exemplified in the word “ Jehoram ” = Yehoram, and Elijah = Eli-yahu. The Phænicians wrote it Yho (Yahou). The name was never pronounced by the Hebrews; Adonai,” or Lord, was substituted. In Greek, according to Diodorus Siculus, it was lao, and, according to Clemens Alexandrinus, laou. It was frequently abbreviated to Yah. Among the Chaldeans it was lao, the letter I representing the sun, and the a and o (alpha and omega, the beginning and the end) representing the moon and Saturn, to whom the topmost and lowest temples in the Tower of Babel were dedicated ; the one to the sun being in the middle.

In the reign of the Assyrian king, Sargon II., the throne of Hamath was occupied by Yahou-behdi, which name literally means the “Servant of Yahou.” The Phoenicians venerated this deity also, for in the inscriptions of Assurbani-pal, another Assyrian king, we read that the name of the then crown prince of Tyrenus was Yahu-melek =“ Yahuh is my king.” On a coin from Gaza of the fourth century B.C.,, now in the British Museum, is a figure of a deity in a chariot of fire, over whose head is written Yho in old Phoenician characters. But Yahuh held only a subordinate position in the general mythology of the Semites, and he only owes his notoriety to the fact that he was chosen as the tribal deity of the Beni-Israel.

The name “ Yah” was frequently met with in conjunction with El, eloh, al, or Alah. In the Bible we find “ Yahuh Elohim” = Yahuh of the gods. The word el or al means a ram and strength, the ram god, or the sun god in Aries. “Al” is the Greek root of helios, the sun. “Eloh,” pronounced el-yah, means the ram or rum god will be (alluding to the time when the sun would be in Aries at the vernal equinox). El or al alone represented the god (singular number) of the winter period—the evil principle as distinguished from Eloh (El-yah) or Alah, the ram sun of Aries, and aleim or elohim (plural), the good principles or gods of the summer months —from equinox to equinox, when the ram or lamb and the sun are together. In the Synagogue copies of the Pentateuch the word rendered in the Bible “ elohim” is “aleim "; and “ Yahuh aleim ” with the Hebrews meant “ Adonai,” the ruler or chief of the gods. The words “Yahuh aleim ” have been erroneously rendered in the Bible “the Lord God”; in the first chapter of Genesis the word aleim is retained as “Elohim," and made to appear as the name of a god, there being no attempt to translate it, evidently for fear of admitting the fact which it was the object of the translators to suppress, that the Hebrews believed in a plurality of gods; though aleim in other parts of the Bible is rendered "gods," as, for instance, in Exodus (xx. 23),

where we read of "aleim of silver ”and “ aleim of gold"; and where the expression “ false gods" is used the word is the same--aleim. A Phoenician inscription called “the Carpentras” has the following : “Blessed be Ta-Bai, daughter of Ta-Hopi, priest of Osiris Eloh"; and we find in Gen. iii. 21, “Yahuh eloh"; so we see that Osiris and Yahuh were literally one and the same-sun gods; the same with Allah (Al-yah) of the Arabs, the Babylonian Bel, the Aramean Belus, and the Syrian and Phoenician Baal. Yahuh is made to admit in Hosea (ii. 16) that Baal was one of his names. Another name by which he was known was Shaddai, sometimes with the Babylonian prefix of El, or Bel.

Adonis, Ammon, or Amen, and Amen-Ra were other representatives of Yahuh. They merely represented the sun-god in different positions with regard to the zodiac. Tammuz and Adon, of ancient Aram and Babylonia, are also the same. The story was that Tammuz was slain by a boar. Adoni-yah= Adonis is Yahuh; Adoni-zedek is the liberated Adonis or sun; Adoni-bezek is the rising Adonis, etc. This god was the popular deity at Thebes, where, also, Yahuh held a prominent place. He was the hidden, concealed, or secret (from which the word sacred is derived) one, the “occult god,” and one with the Stygian Jupiter, when he descended to the lowest point of his annual descension in December; he is thus spoken of in Isaiah xlv. 15: “ Thou art a god that hidest thyself, O God of Israel.” He is the god of every deyree of “glory,” one with the Olympian Zeus, when he rises to his highest point of ascension in June—the “rising” and “liberated” Adonis,

nt Ara Tammuzni-sede





The fear of the ghost and the ideas in the mind of primitive man, which had their inception at the grave, caused him to attach a sacredness to material objects and periods of time, such as stones, places, names, and days. These are to be observed to this day-for ghosts are just as much believed in now as ever they were—in the ghost stories, the aversion shown by timid people to pass near a cemetery after dark, and the haunting of rooms in which persons have died; the spirit or ghost of the departed one is still supposed to linger near the spot. The tombstone, too, is still “sacred” to the memory of the dead person ; and the word “sacred " carries with it a weird meaning and a feeling of awe. The Rosetta Stone is another example of a sacred stone; it was believed to have dropped from heaven. Churches—the houses of the ghost or god-and certain spots within them are “sacred,” hence the name “sanctuary "; they are the modern representative of the primitive hut, in which was the grave, and by which it was made “sacred.” The name of a person in primitive times represented a personality ; it was the shadow or second self, and thus“ secret” or “sacred.” Even pronouncing the name of a sacred person was a terribl crime, and the Hebrew word rendered “blasphemeth” in Lev. (xxiv. II, 16) is literally “pronounceth," and is so rendered by the Jews themselves. The name of the Hebrew tribal god lao, “ Yahuh," or Jehovah, was “sacred,” and the son of the Israelitish woman was stoned to death for pronouncing it. The Talmud says: “He who attempts

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