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munity, his intelligence and ingenuity developed in accordance with the requirements of his environment; at the same time, aided greatly by his prolonged infancy which is characteristic of the human offspring, were evolved gentleness, affection, sympathy, etc.; co-operation favouring the development of emotional as well as intellectual strength. And the same process of development may be observed at the present day going on among the ape species, who have already acquired many of the habits of man, such as building shelters, living in community, and forming distinct societies.

In considering the evolution of life, of man, and of the species, as of human society, the universe, and everything contained in it, we must bear in mind that the great axiom of evolution is, that "there is nothing in the end which was not also in the beginning."

The next point we have to consider is: Where was man first evolved, and how—after his evolution, which we have seen must have been very gradual—did he become dispersed over the face of the earth ?

Primitive man is believed to have been evolved in the submerged continent, called by us Lemuria, which was supposed to have existed where the Indian Ocean now is, and to have joined Africa and the island of Madagascar to the continent of Arabia and Hindostan.

Primitive man separated into two families :-1. The woolly-haired, all dolichocephalic, migrated west and south, and evolved the Papuans of New Guinea and Tasmania ; (1) the Hottentots of South Africa, who even now differ but little from the anthropoid apes, having dark yellow hairy skins, long thin arms, short ill-developed legs, and largelydeveloped buttocks, are semi-erect, and have inarticulate, clicking speech; (2) the negro of higher development than the Hottentot ; and (3) the Caffre of higher development again than the negro, but having imperfect speech. All are savages. II. The straight-haired; migrated south and east, and evolved (1) the Australians, dolichocephalic and prognathous, with dark brown skins, but articulate speech. These gradually separated into (2) Mongolian or Turanian, and (3) Caucasian or Iranian. The Mongolians occupied the North and East of Asia, Polynesia, and America ; were brachycephalic (short-headed) and prognathous. These subdivided into Mongols of China, Japan, Lapland, Finland, Hungary, and the Malays or Dyaks of Borneo, with brownish-yellow skins, and the Mongols of America, with red skins—both classes remained brachycephalic, but lost the prognathous character. The Caucasians, with dark skins, occupied Western Asia and most of Europe, were mesocephalic (medium length of skull), prognathous, and cave-dwellers, becoming subsequently agriculturalists. These latter subdivided into the Semites of Arabia and Syria, and the Aryan or Indo-European, both being mesocephalic, but not prognathous.

The opposite state to life is DEATH. Death is simply a change of form, the change from the heterogeneous to the homogeneous--the final equilibration which precedes dissolution, the bringing to a close of all those conspicuous integrated motions that arose during evolution. “Precisely where evolution ends, dissolution begins, and their point of impact (or collision) is equilibration," says Herbert Spencer ; and he defines dissolution as being the absorption of motion and the concomitant disintegration for separation of particles] of matter." The conspicuous effects of the changes that occur at death are :-“First, the impulsions of the body from place to place cease; then, the limbs cannot be stirred ; later, the respiratory actions stop ; finally, the heart becomes stationary, and, with it, the circulating fluids."*

Life then ceases to exist in its active and corporate form, but in its corporate form oniy, for matter is indestructible, and, therefore, eternal. When the animating principle, vital force, or breath leaves the body, the point of equilibration being reached, dissolution and disintegration commence; and the transformation of molecular motion into the motion of masses comes to an end, each of the motions of masses disappearing into molecular motions. The body, or aggregate of masses of matter, breaks up into molecules, which, assuming the gaseous form, disperse themselves into the ethereal medium, leaving a residue of ashes which returns to the earth whence it originated. As life feeds upon life, so do these particles become part of other forms of life; and so the process goes onmolecules aggregating to form masses, masses to form bodies; bodies returning again to

* H. Spencer, First Principles.


masses, and masses to molecules ; continual change and ceaseless life going on all through nature.

It is thus easy to be seen that no conduct on part can in any way affect the future of the breath or corporate life, which ceases at what we call death ; and that, having absolutely no knowledge of the possibility of any reincorporation and reanimation of the identical molecules and aggregated masses, which made up our bodies as human entities during life, whatever rewards or punishments that may be ours, are of this world and during the continuance of our lives only. Of spiritual or any other life beyond human life, we know nothing.

It is not unusual to hear people talk very glibly about "rushing into eternity," as if they knew all about it and had been there, though the only eternity they really know, or can know, anything about is the eternity of matter and power, or the forces of nature. Such a thing as eternity, or future life, for them as corporate masses or entities, is, of course, absurd, and not what they intend to convey. What they have in their minds is the spirit or ghost world, which was invented, as we shall see further on, by primitive man to explain events of daily occurrence in nature which he could not understand, and the eternity of the spirits, ghosts, or souls—as the modern term is—who are believed to be received there after death. Such meaningless expressions are part of the ambiguous religious phraseology of the day, and are of the same value as “God dwelling in you," “ finding Jesus,” etc.




From the earliest ages man has believed in the supernatural. In his primitive savage condition he regarded everything as, such that he could not understand, being filled with fear at whatever was strange in appearance and behaviour, attributing what in these days are regarded as natural phenomena, and which can be easily explained by science—such as the gathering and vanishing of clouds; the thunder, lightning, and darkness during storms; the ripple of the water in a breeze; earthquakes ; volcanic eruptions; the rising and setting of the sun ; the appearance of the moon, planets, shooting stars; and all those changes which the heavens and the earth are hourly exhibiting to the actions of the ghostly inhabitants of an invisible world. He believed that his body was occupied by a spirit, ghost, or second self, which was capable of leaving the body at will, and returning to it again. When he moved abroad by the light of the moon his shadow, or second self, accompanied him ; when he heard the echo of his voice in the distant cliff his second self was answering him ; when, in the darkness of night, a breeze arose, and rustled the leaves of the neighbouring trees, the ghosts of the dead were prowling about; when he slept, or swooned, or fainted from blows or loss of blood, his spirit had left him for a time, and, in his dreams, was meeting the spirits and souls of both the living and the dead, and engaged in his ordinary avocations of hunting and dancing, returning again as he awoke or recovered. From such ideas as these his primitive reasoning led him to

believe that death was not final, and that he would live again in the spirit world. Being thus accustomed to the idea that the second self, or spirit, left the body on certain occasions, death was not looked upon as final; the spirit might return at any me.

In expectation of this reanimation, it became customary to supply the dead man with food and drink, not only for use in the other world, but to be in readiness for a return to this. At death his wives, slaves, cattle, dogs, horses, etc., were necessary for his use in the next world. His slaves, therefore, were executed at once, in order to prepare the house for their master; his wives either immolated themselves or were killed ; and his cattle destroyed, for his use, and buried with him, together with his money. If a wife or child died, the articles they had been accustomed to use during life-the wife her domestic appliances, and the child its toys—were buried with them. The place of burial—either in the open ground of the adjacent hill, forming a mound (the future "tumulus" or “cairn ”), or in the " sacred” grove, cave, or hut-became a sacred spot, and the old home was haunted by the ghost of the dead, who lingered near, wandering about in the adjacent bush. The ghosts of the dead enemies were malevolent spirits, and the originals of “demons” and “devils"; while those of friends were benevolent, and the originals of "angels” and “saints.” The former were the cause of all their troubles and misfortunes. Both had to be propitiated--the former by flattery and praise, in order to coax them to refrain from malevolent designs and wreaking their vengeance upon the living, from which arose demon-worship (demonology); the latter as good ghosts, in order that they might exercise an influence over the bad or evil ghosts.

The evil spirits were to be seen in the dark, evil-looking clouds, which assume so many different shapes -horrible, grotesque, or ludicrous, according to fancy ; they were called by our Aryan forefathers “Rachshasas,” and are still so called by the Hindus.

A complicated theory of angels grew up among the Persian magicians, forming a large portion of their mystic science. They had their angels of light and darkness, one for each month in the year, corresponding with the twelve signs of the zodiac, and from which, later, were evolved the

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