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swathed, with cross and staff. Phtah, or Ptah, and Ra gave origin to the name Pha-ra-oh, the mythical Egyptian terrorist of the 0. T. legends. Anubis was the jackal, or dog-headed genius of death. Serapis-worship was introduced from Asia.

Set was the ass-headed god, identical with Kep of Syria; the sons of Seth, or Set, of the Bible were people who worshipped this god. He was the warrior god, the Roman Mars; and, as Typhon, attended by seventytwo bad spirits, he attacked Osiris. The same story is met with in the Babylonian "Bel and the Dragon (found in the Apocrypha). The divinities of Egypt, as we have seen, were numerous, varying according to dynasty; but Isis was the most important of the goddesses. She represented the earth originally-I Shi DE in Hebrew, and the female or generative fire-ASE or ACHE, from which the name can be traced. Her images and pictures are, like those of Devaki and Krishna, black. She was the representative of Ishtar of Nineveh, Astarte of Babylon, Friga of the Saxon nations, Isa or Disa of the Teutons, Mylitta of Sidon, Maia of Greece, Semele of Bæotia, Idea of Crete, and Daveina of Chaldæa. She is identical with Isha and Ashtaroth of the Hebrews. Isis and Horus cult became Mary and Jesus cult during the transformation of Egyptian and Roman Paganism into Christianism; and the same black Madonnas that once represented Isis then represented Mary. The Virgins made from old copies have a very decided Isis cast of features. Isis and Osiris were originally the moon and sun divinities, and their love for each other drew them together at their conjunction. There is still a star called “ Isis” in the dog constellation, the reason being that about the time when the Nile rose the dog-star also rose heliacally, and thus became associated with a natural occurrence.

In AFRICA Serapis appears to have held the position that Osiris did in Egypt; but later he became fashionable in Egypt, and was worshipped by the Essenes, or Therapeutæ ; and from them the Jessæans, or followers of Jesus, obtained this god. The other divinities of Africa were Isis, Horus, Moloch (in Carthage ; identical with Baal), Amon, Hercules, and Astarte.

In GREECE the phallic god was Priapos. Zeus, Zeus-Amen,

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and Zeu-pater (Jupiter and Jove of Rome, identical with Amen); Apollo, the sun-god; Pallas (Athene), the “immaculate virgin ”; Minerva, to whom the Parthenon at Athens was dedicated; Juno, the moon goddess; and Diana, “the Virgin Queen of Heaven.” These two last are represented, like Isis and the Christian Mary, with the crescent mod beneath her feet, and twelve stars over her head (the twelve signs of the zodiac). Aphrodite, identical with Venus; Demeter, the corn goddess; Hermes; Prometheus; Perseus, Herakles; Dionysos Bacchos, the god of wine ; and, later, Isis and Serapis. The Stoics, Platonists, and Epicureans were philosophers who occupied a position similar to that of Agnostics at the present day.

In ancient ITALY, Isis was a favourite goddess; she was generally represented black, with a black child, as Devaki and Krishna of India were; but Cybele was also worshipped, both being “Virgin Queens of Heaven." The festival of the latter is still commemorated at “ Lady Day,” though it has been transferred to Mary.

In Rome nearly every Greek deity was identified with some member of the Pantheon. There were “twelve great gods,” six male and six female, whose gilded statues were ranged along the forum-Juno, Queen of Heaven and patroness of married women; Vesta, patroness of the domestic hearth; Minerva (Athene), patroness of science and art; Ceres (mother earth), goddess of corn ; Diana, the moon; Venus, patroness of love and beauty; Mars, patron of war; Mercurius (Hermes), patron of traffic and gain; Jovis, Jupiter, Ammon (Zeus of the Greeks), “Lord Supreme,” patron of the ides of the month ; Neptunus, “Lord of the Sea”; Vulcanus, patron of fire, the smith who forged the armour of the gods and thunderbolts of Zeus; Apollo, a later god representing the sun.

Varro gives the twelve gods as follows :- Jovis and Tellus ; Sol and Luna; Ceres and Liber ; Robigus and Flora ; Minerva and Venus; Lympha and Bonus Eventus. There were besides the above- Janus, Saturnus, Orcus, and Genius. The“ domestic gods” were Lares and Penates. The “nine gods” were believed by the Etruscans to possess the power of wielding thunderbolts. Seven of them only are knownTinia or Jovis ; Cupra or Juno; Minerva, Summanus, Mars, Lethlaus, or Vulcanus; Vedius or Veiovis. The "gods

native of the soil” were mortals, who, by their bravery and
virtues, had won for themselves a place among the celestials
- Hercules, Æneas, Romulus (Quirinus). There were also
gods, divine by one parent only, such as Semo-Saucus;
also rural deities–Faunus and Fauna, Lupercus, Inuus
(Pan), Picus and Sylvanus, patrons of woods ; Pales, patron
of shepherds; Pomona, fruits ; Vertumnus, changing
seasons; Anna Perenna, circling year ; Terminus, boun-
daries. Then there were personifications of moral qualities,
and imported or foreign gods such as Æsculapius, Priapus,
the phallic god of production and patron of gardens, and
Simon Magus, the magician. Jovis (the Greek Zeus) was
reputed to be the father of the following heroes :-Hercules
(Greek Herakles), Mercury, Apollo, Perseus, Prometheus,
Amphion, Æthlius, Arcas, Dyonysos or Bacchus, and
Aroclus. Bacchus is of interest on account of his mono-
gram, slightly improved upon, being adopted by the Chris-
tians as the emblem of their Messiah. He was the son, as
we have seen, of Jupiter, by the virgin Semele, and taught
the culture of the vine, and thus by a sort of miracle con-
verted water (the grape juice) into wine. When his image
was removed from Pontus on the Black Sea, about B.C. 300,
to Alexandria in Egypt, a huge temple was erected to him,
and he was identified as the resurgated Osiris, anointed and
christened-i.e., made a christ_after the manner of ancient
kings, and called Ser-apis. In 140 C.E. the worship of
Serapis was introduced into Rome by Antoninus Pius, and
his “mysteries” celebrated on May 6th, the Christian
Ascension Day.”

Phallic ( Assyria )-Assur or Asher, Anu and Hea.
Vedic-Indra, Surya, and Agni.
HinduBrahma, Vishnu, and Siva—the Producer, the .

Preserver, and the Destroyer; also Vasudeva,

Devaki, and Krishna.
PersianOromazdes or Ormuzd, Mithras, and Ahri-


Egyptian (Abydos)—Osiris, Isis, and Horus;

(Thebes) -- Amen-Ra, Nut, and Chonsu.
Syrian-Monimus, Aziz, and Ares.
Canaan- The self-triplicated Baal.

ChaldæanAna or Anu, Bel or Baal, and Hea.
Greek-Zeus, Athene, and Apollo.
Roman-Jovis, Juno, and Minerva.
Christian (early) - Yahuh, Mary, and Jesus; (later)

Yahuh, Holy Ghost, Spirit, or Wind,* and Jesus.
It has been well said by a writer on science that the only
Trinity we know of is that of MATTER, Motion, and TIME.
SCRIPTURES, or sacred writings :-
Egyptians -- The Book of the Dead and the Maxims of

Ptāh Hotep, eighteen in number. Aryans, of Asia—The Vedas. (1) Brahmanism (Hinduism)-— The four Sanhitas

and Brahmanas; the Law Book of Manu ; the Mahabharata, in which is the Bhagavadgita;

and the Ramayana.
(2) BuddhismThe Tripitaka, or Three Baskets.
Parseeism— The Zend Avesta.
ConfucianismThe Five Classics (King), and Four

TaoismThe Tau-teh-king.
JudaismThe Pentateuch and the Talmud, or Book

of the Law. ChristianismThe Old and New Testaments. Islamism— The Koran.

* See Acts ii. 2.







THE book of Genesis contains two accounts of Creation differing in nearly every detail ; they can neither be reconciled with each other, nor be made to harmonize with science. The late Dean Stanley, of the Established Church, admitted that “the first and second chapters of Genesis contain two narratives, differing from each other in almost every particular of time, place, and order." The legend is, like “the Fall of Man,” “the Deluge,” and “the Tower of Babel,” of Babylonian origin, all being obtained during the Captivity. “The discovery and decipherment of the Assyrian records," says Mr. Edwards, have raised the curtain upon forgotten dramas of the earth's history, and have removed the Jewish writings from the solitary position they once occupied. We have now before us the voluminous literature of a race allied to the Jews in blood, creed, thought, and language.” Not only are the above legends Babylonian, “but the ritual, dress, and furniture of the Temple were Babylonian; and the religious poetry of the Hebrews is anticipated by that of Babylon. The history and chronology of the Hebrew scriptures are proved faulty and unreliable, and the whole evidence at command


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