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culio. Of the Captiui only a few fragments of two passages remain (905—931, 1008—1029). An elaborate edition of this MS. by Studemund has recently been published

(Berlin, 1890). 28 In addition to these four MSS., ABCD, there are three

or four others which require notice, although of secondary importance. V is a cursive MS., dating from the beginning of the 12th century, in the University Library at Leyden. Doubtless it originally contained the first eight plays, but its beginning and end have been mutilated and it now comprises the Aulularia (190—end), Captiui, Curculio, Casina, Cistellaria and Epidicus (to 244). An account of it may be found in Schoell's preface to his edition of the Casina. E is a cursive MS. of the 13th century, and contains the first eight plays. J, which is preserved in the British Museum, dates from the beginning of the 12th century. It is a MS. of 194 leaves, of which the first 112 contain three treatises of Cicero, the remainder the first eight plays of Pl. It has been damaged by fire, and the

beginnings and ends of lines are often illegible. 29 These three MSS. are considered to have had a common

archetype, belonging to the same family as B and D and related to both of them in the same way as they are related to each other; to this archetype V corresponds most closely, then E; the authority of J being reckoned lower than that of the other two. These MSS. are obviously of value to supplement B in those plays (including the last half of the Captiui) where neither C nor D is available. How they agree in reproducing errors in which their archetype differed from B and D may be seen in the critical notes on lines 35, 90, 151, 174, 390, 436, 466, 469, 508, 516, 573, 615, 777, 864, 917, 935, 951, 962, 1030.

A fragment of the Captiui (400—555) is contained in a MS. (O) which Loewe considers of the same age as D; it is transcribed in Goetz's Analecta Plautina, p. 86 sqq.

30

THE METRES OF PLAUTUS.

31 The Greek system of versification, used for the first

time in Latin by Livius Andronicus, who began to write about the date of Plautus' birth, was based upon quantity, i.e. the length of time during which the voice dwells upon the different syllables in a word. In ordinary speech there is, of course, great variety in this respect, but for metrical purposes the Greeks recognised only two varieties as possible, and classified all syllables as either short or long, the short syllable containing one time' (mora, tempus), the long syllable being taken as equal to two short and

so containing two “times.' 32 The different combinations of two, three or four syl

lables belonging to these two classes are called feet, and

two consecutive feet are sometimes called a dipodia. 33 Feet may be classified according to (a) the number of syllables, or (6) the number of 'times,' which they contain.

(a) the Dissyllabic feet are
Pyrrhic (-)

Iambus (--)
Spondee (--)

Trochee (--)
the Trisyllabic are
Tribrach (vvu)

Cretic (---)
Dactyl (---)

Bacchius (---)
Amphibrach (---) Antibacchius (---)
Anapaest ( :-)

Molossus ( -) the Tetrasyllabic are 16 in number, of which we need only notice the

Proceleusmatic (vvu) Choriambus ( -uv-)
First Paeon (-uvu) Ionic a majori ( ----)
Fourth Paeon (vvv-)

Ionic a minori (uv--)

62

34 (6) These feet may be tabulated according to the

number of times' they contain, thus :

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35 A combination of not more than eight feet, arranged

according to certain rules, is called a verse or line; this forms a metrical unit and is, in most kinds of verse, to be scanned by itself, independently of the lines which precede and follow; when this is the case, it ends with the end of a word, and the last syllable is ‘doubtful,' i.e., is considered long or short according to the requirements of

the metre, whatever its real quantity may be. 36 When a verse, instead of ending with a complete foot,

has the last syllable wanting, it is called Catalectic; if two syllables are wanting, Brachycatalectic; if the line is complete, Acatalectic; if there be one or two syllables too

many, Hypercatalectic. 37 Verses are sometimes named from the number of feet

they contain, a senarius containing 6 feet, a septenarius 7,

an octonarius 8, &c. 38 ‘Metre' has two meanings : in the wider and more

usual sense it means a kind of verse, as when we speak of Iambic metre, but in the narrower and more technical sense, “a metre' means either a single foot, or a dipodia; in Iambic, Trochaic and Anapaestic verse, a metre consists of a dipodia, being the first, or any subsequent, pair of feet

in a line: e.g.

(1) Homunculi | quanti sunt, quom | recogito. (Iambic.) (2) Odi ego aurum; ¡ multa multis | saepe suasit | perperam.

(Trochaic.) (3) Emi hosce homines ; | ubi quisque uident. (Anapaestic.)

In Dactylic, Cretic and Bacchiac verse a metre consists of a single foot; e.g. (4) Tityre, I tu patuslae recusbans sub | tegmine | fagi.

(Dactylic.) (5) Ne arbitri | dicta nostra arbitralri queant. (Cretic.) (6) Agundumst. | Ero ut me | uoles es|se. Spero. (Bacchiac.)

Verses are named according to the number of metres they contain; thus (1) is a trimeter, (2) a tetrameter catalectic, (3) a dimeter, (4) a hexameter, (5) and (6) tetra

meters. 39 “Ictus Metricus is the stress which must be laid upon

particular syllables in repeating verse, in order that the rhythm of the measure may be made perceptible to the earl.” Thus in the lines

Títyre patulaé recubáns sub tégmine fági,
Ódi ego aúrum: múlta múltis saépe suásit pérperám,

Homúnculi quanti sunt, quóm recógitó, some stress must be laid upon the accented syllables in order to mark the rhythm of the respective measures. The ictus falls once in every foot?, but in those verses in which a metre contains two feet, the accent denoting ictus is generally printed only upon the first foot in each

dipodia. 40 The rhythm of verses would naturally be marked by

movements of the feet or hands : thus Horace says, Sat. I. X. 42, Pollio regum Facta canit pede ter percusso, alluding to the lambic Trimeter, which was the usual metre of

1 Ramsay, Lat. Pros. p. 270.
2 Hor. A. P. 253.

Tragedy. Hence that part of the foot which receives the ictus was originally called the déors, for there the reciter put down his hand or his foot, while the part which is free from the ictus was called the apois, for there he lifted it up. This was the usage of the older grammarians Dionysius and Hephaestio; but later writers, such as Priscian and Martianus Capella (5th century A.D.), thinking that these terms referred to the voice and noticing that stress is laid upon a syllable by raising the voice not by lowering it, reversed the practice of their predecessors and called that part of the foot which received the ictus the apois and the other the déors; and this usage is now so well established that any attempt to return to the ancient practice would only lead to confusion. The words will therefore be used here in the later and less correct way, as referring to the voice, that part of the foot upon which the stress is laid being called the apois or said to be in arsi, while the other

part is called the déors or said to be in thesi. 41 In an iambus, anapaest or bacchius the stress falls upon

the final long syllable; in a trochee, cretic or dactyl upon the initial long syllable. And so with the measures of which these are the original feet; in the lambic Anapaestic and Bacchiac measures the ictus falls on the latter part of the foot whether it be the proper foot of the measure or any other foot which may be substituted therefor, while

in Trochaic, Cretic and Dactylic it falls on the first part. 42 Thus there are two distinct and opposite kinds of verse,

that in which the feet begin with the thesis (rising rhythm), and that in which they begin with the arsis (falling rhythm). We will consider first the rising rhythms.

I. IAMBIC.

43 The iambic senarius, or iambic trimeter acat., is the

usual vehicle of ordinary stage dialogue. The original foot was the iambus, for which the equivalent tribrach was admissible in every place but the last; but, to give more

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