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Neither is it quite clear that, in the voyage under

same year, or the following,)the father accompanied Sebastian; for, if there be any truth in the report made to the Pope's legate in Spain, and printed in the collection of Ramusio, it would appear that Sebastian was alone on this voyage of discovery ; as in this document Sebastian is thus made to say :-"and when my father died, in that time when news were brought that Don Christoval Colon,* the Genoese, had discovered the coasts of India, of which there was great talke in all the court of King Henry VII. who then reigned ; insomuch that all men, with great admiration, affirmed it to be a thing more divine than humane to saile by the West into the East, where spices growe, by a way that was never known before : by his fame and report, there increaseth in my heart a great flame of desire to attempt some notable thing; and understanding by reason of the 'sphere that if I should saile by way of north-west I should by a shorter tract come into India, I thereupon caused the king to be advertised of iny devise, who immediately commanded two caravels to bee furnished with all things appertayning to the voyage, which was, as farre as I remember, in the year 1496, in the beginning of summer; I

* This again is at variance with the patent of Henry, in which John is mentioned by name.


began therefore to sail toward the north-west, not thinking to find any other land than that of Cathay, and from thence to turn toward India ; but after certaine dayes I found that the land ranne toward the north, which was to me a great displeasure. Nevertheless, sayling along by the coast to see if I could finde any gulfe that turned, I found the lande still continued to the 56 degree under our pole. And seeing that there the coast turned to the east, despairing to find the passage, I turned backe again, and sailed downe by the coast of that land toward the equinoctiall, (ever with intent to finde the saide passage to India,) and came to that part of this firme lande which is nowe called Florida, where my victuals failing, I departed from thence and returned into England, where I found great tumults among the people and preparations for warres in Scotland, by reason whereof there was no more consideration had to this voyage.”*

The probability therefore is, that the father and son jointly, in their first voyage, discovered Newfoundland, to which they gave the name of Prima Vista, “ the first seen.” They describe the natives as being clothed in skins of beasts, and using, as arms, bows and arrows, clubs and pikes. They saw bears and large deer, caught plenty of seals, fine salmon, and soles above a yard in length; but the fish in greatest abundance was of a kind called by the natives baccallaos, a name by which the country was afterwards known, and which a sñall island on the eastern side still bears. The Dutch and Gernians have adopted the native name of the cod-fish, by changing the latter l into j and transposing the letters b and c, making the word cabaljou.

* Ramusio ; and Hakluyt's voyages. ..

From an extract made by Hakluyt out of Fabian's Chronicle, it would appear that the Cabots brought home three of the natives of Newfoundland. “ These savages were clothed in beasts’ skins, and did eate raw flesh, and spake such speach that no man could understand them; and in their demeanour like to bruite beastes, whom


Sebastian Cabota finding, on his return from the discovery of America, that the English government was not disposed to prosecute the enterprize thus happily begún, set out for Spain; or, as Peter Martyr saith, "he was called out of England by the command of His Catholic Majesty of Castile, where he was made one of the council for the affairs of the New Indies ;" and he adds, “ Cabot is my very good friend, whom I treat with familiarity, and delight to have frequently to keep me company at my own house.".

Sebastian made several voyages in the service of Spain, and among others discovered the Rio

enrolled this deserving citizens.


The Portugueze, not covered a route to India pestuous extremity of Ati an equally dangerous en a route to India and the westward round the America.

de la Plata, or River of Silver, on the coast of Brazil. After this he returned to England, probably of the invitation of Mr. Robert Thorne, an English merchant of Bristol, but resident at Seville, with whom he was intimately acquainted, and who had contributed largely to one of his expeditions.* Mr. Thorne was a native, and once had served the office of mayor, of the city of Bristol, where Cabota's father had lived. His return to England was in the year 1548, when Henry VIII. was on the throne. On the succession of Edward VI. the Duke of Somerset introduced him to the young king, who was so delighted with his conversation that he created him, by patent, pilot major, and settled on him a pension for life of 500 marks (1661. 138. 4d.) a year, “in consideration of the good and acceptable services done, and to be done.”+ Never was a reward, great as it was in those days, more deservedly bestowed. Placed at the head of the “Society of Merchant Adventurers," by his knowledge and experience, his zeal and penetration, he not only was the means of extending the foreign commerce of England, but of keeping alive that spirit of enterprize, which, even in his life time, was crowned with success, and which ultimately led to the most happy results for the nation that had so wisely and honourably

This bold undertaking CORTEREA LS, the enligh school of Sagres. The Dame of Cortereal, who en was John Vaz Costa COR the household of the In who, accompanied by A explored the northern se Alfonso the Fifth, and a Baccalhaos (the land of con Newfoundland.

does not state th ascertained to be their return from

This voyage is mentione

not state the exact ained to have been in return from the disco

Terra Nova, they tou Terceira, the captaincy

or Terra N.

# Lives of the Admirals, vol.i. p. 381.

Hakluyt's Voyages.
Ryıner's Fædera, vol. xv. p. 181.

* Historia Insulana, C

enrolled this deserving foreigner in the list of her citizens.


The Portugueze, not content with having discovered a route to India by sailing round the tempestuous extremity of Africa, soon after engaged in an equally dangerous enterprize ;—that of finding a route to India and the Spice islands, by sailing westward round the northern extremity of America.

This bold undertaking was reserved for the CORTEREALS, the enlightened disciples of the school of Sagres. The first navigator of the name of Cortereal, who engaged in this enterprize, was John Vaz Costa CORTEREAL, a gentleman of the household of the Infanta Don Fernandowho, accompanied by Alvaro Martens Hornen, explored the northern seas, by order of King Alfonso the Fifth, and discovered the Terra de Baccalhaos (the land of cod fish) afterwards called Newfoundland. · This voyage is mentioned by Cordeiro,* but he does not state the exact date, which however is ascertained to have been in 1463 or 1464; for, on their return from the discovery of Newfoundland, or Terra Nova, they touched at the island of Terceira, the captaincy of which island having

* Historia Insulana, Cordeiro, 1 vol. fol.

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