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published, it would appear that in the same year that Wood proceeded to the north-east, a Captain Baker had been sent on a voyage of discovery to the north-west, though no voyage of the kind can be traced in that year, either at the instance of the public, or of private adventurers ; certainly none but that of the Speedwell was fitted out by the Admiralty. The minute in the diary therefore most probably alludes to the voyage of Wood ; and if so, it contains mistakes very unusual to a man of Evelyn's character for sound intelligence and strict accuracy. He says, “ 1676, July 26, I dined at the Admiralty with Secretary Pepys, and supped at the Lord Chamberlain's. Here was Captain Baker, who had been lately on the attempt of the north-west passage. He reported prodigious depth of ice, blue as a sapphire, and as transparent. The thick mists were their chiefe impediment and cause of their return.”*

There can be little doubt that this odd jumble of mistakes, in the date, names, and objects, was meant to refer to Wood's failure, which, to use the words of a learned writer, “ seems to have closed the long list of unfortunate northern expeditions in that century; and the discovery, if not absolutely despaired of, by being so often missed, ceased for many years to be sought for.”[

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* Memoirs of Evelyn, &c.Diary, July 26th, 1676. + Introduction to Cook's last Voyage by Doctor Douglas, p. 28.

this exigency was to let the brandy-bottle go round, which kept them always fox’d, till the 8th July (the ninth day after we had been on shore) Captain Flawes came so seasonably to our relief.” From this time the journal is continued by Captain Flawes; but as it contains only the courses steered and the distances run in the homeward voyage, it is unnecessary to take any further notice of it..

Captain Wood, having thus lost his ship without making the smallest advancement of new discovery, and without having approached by many degrees, either in latitude or longitude, the points already reached by former navigators, boldly decides that he was led into error by following the opinion of William Barentz; that all the Dutch and English relations were false; that Nova Zembla and Greenland (Spitzbergen) are one and the same continent; and that it is unknown hitherto whether Nova Zembla be an isle or adjoining to the continent of Great Tartary. “In justice, however,” says Daines Barrington, “ to the memories of both English and Dutch navigators, I cannot but take notice of these very peremptory and ill-founded reflections made by Wood, and which seem to be dictated merely by his disappointment in not being able to effect his discovery."*

From a memorandum in Evelyn's Diary, recently

* Possibility of approaching the North Pole.

published, it would appear that in the same year that Wood proceeded to the north-east, a Captain Baker had been sent on a voyage of discovery to the north-west, though no voyage of the kind can be traced in that year, either at the instance of the public, or of private adventurers; certainly none but that of the Speedwell was fitted out by the Admiralty. The minute in the diary therefore most probably alludes to the voyage of Wood; and if so, it contains mistakes very unusual to a man of Evelyn's character for sound intelligence and strict accuracy. He says, “ 1676, July 26, I dined at the Admiralty with Secretary Pepys, and supped at the Lord Chamberlain's. Here was Captain Baker, who had been lately on the attempt of the north-west passage. He reported prodigious depth of ice, blue as a sapphire, and as transparent. The thick mists were their chiefe impediment and cause of their return.”*

There can be little doubt that this odd jumble of mistakes, in the date, names, and objects, was meant to refer to Wood's failure, which, to use the words of a learned writer, “ seems to have closed the long list of unfortunate northern expeditions in that century; and the discovery, if not absolutely despaired of, by being so often missed, ceased for many years to be sought for.” †

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* Memoirs of Evelyn, &c.Diary, July 26th, 1676. + Introduction to Cook's last Voyage by Doctor Douglas, p. 28. CHAPTER IV.

DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS DURING

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

Knight, Barlow, Vaughan, and ScroggsMiddleton and MoorMoor and Smith - Hearne-PhippsCook and Clerke-PickersgillYoungDuncan-Lowenorn and Egede, Mackenzie.

JAMES KNIGHT, GEORGE BARLOW, DAVID VAUGHAN,

AND JOHN SCROGGS. 1719 to 1722.

Of the unfortunate voyage, undertaken by. Knight, Barlow, and Vaughan, very little was ever collected, as the two ships sent out upon it were lost and the whole of their crews perished. MR. KNIGHT, with whom it originated, had been long in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was ultimately appointed Governor of the factory established on. Nelson's River. In his communications with the native Indians he had learned, that at some distance to the northward, and on the banks of a navigable river or inlet, into which vessels might go from the bay, there was a rich mine of native copper. On the strength

of this information he came over to England to solicit the Company to fit out two vessels, and send them, under his command, to discover this rich mine; but the Company, for certain reasons which were construed unfavourably to the liberal views of the directors, refused to comply with the proposal of their Governor. Knight, however, did not give up his point. He plainly told them that they were obliged by their charter to make

they were particularly required to search for a north-west passage through the straits of Anian to the South Sea ; and that if they still refused to send him and Barlow on a voyage of discovery, he should lay his application before the ministers of the crown; and for this purpose he actually waited on one of the secretaries of state. When the Company perceived him thus resolutely bent on his project, and that his “ troublesome zeal,” as Robson calls it, “ might actually bring on an enquiry into the legality of their charter,"* they thought it necessary to comply, and fitted out a ship and sloop called the Albany and the Discovery, the former commanded by CAPTAIN GEORGE BARLOW and the other by CAPTAIN DAVID VAUGHAN; Mr. Knight being however entrusted with the sole direction of the expedition. Perhaps they

* An Account of Six Years Residence in Hudson's Bay. By Joseph Robson, Appen. p. 37.

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