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of which are explained the principles previously laid down. The endeavour to illustrate the rules of English composition by specimens of modern Latin, is surely strange: but this is not all; an after-thought occurs to our « learned Theban.” He thinks he can kill two birds with one stone ; that is, the Latin

prose is turned into

very

indifferent English, and the Latin verse into execrable rhymes: and these, forsooth, are to illustrate the precepts of English composition, and to be the models on which the taste of the student shall be formed ! There once lived a critic, “ who was himself the great sublime he drew;" we are sorry not to be able to apply this to our author,

A Dictionary of Latin Phrases; comprehending a Methodical Digest

of the various Phrases, from the best Authors. By W. Robertson,

A.M.--8vo. pp. 1028. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. We concur with the learned Editor of this valuable work, that, if a correct Latinity be only to be acquired by an extensive and profound acquaintance with the various works of classic authors, it would be absolutely unattainable by any one in statu pupilleri, and could scarcely be taught in our schools. The Dictionary of Latin Phrases .contributes to shorten the road to the attainment of Latin composition, and accelerates the progress of the student, without the necessity of so tedious an initiation. Robertson's Latin Phrase-book had been so long out of print, and became so scarce, that a new edition was called for by the most eminent teachers of the classics. The old edition, however, required improvement. The English was obsolete; the arrangement confused ; the order of printing such as to render it difficult for consultation or reference; and much of the Latin drawn from barbarous sources. The redundancies, moreover, were so numerous, as to increase, most unnecessarily and seriously, the bulk and

expense of the volume. It has been the aim of the present editor to remedy these defects; and we think, he has succeeded. By* his diligence the work is better adapted than before, to the use of the middle and upper classes in our schools; and while he, has usefully diminished the size of the volume, he has considerably enhanced its value, on the score of purity, and increased, in an equal degree, its capacity for reference.

Elegantiæ Latine; or, Rules and Exercises illustrative of elegant

Latin Style, intended for the Use of the Middle and Higher Classes

of Grammar Schools.-12mo. pp. 272. 4s. 6d. bound. “ ELEGANTIÆ LATINÆ" is a very useful little work, which derives no small portion of its value from the addition of the phrases and passages which occupy its latter pages, and will be found useful to the more advanced scholars in the higher classes of the grammar schools. .Works of this nature contain the germ of future logicians, orators, and historians. Elegance of style consists in the choice of the most appropriate words and expressions, and in their disposition, and clear and perspicuous application. But no word can be elegant or beautiful in itself, in its disjointed state ; but merely as far as it strengthens,

connects, or illustrates the subject: or, at least, as far as the Latin word conveys in its true meaning the full force of the English expression. The object of the Elegantiæ Latinæ is to store the memory with examples of this description.

The learned editor, Dr. Valpy, says, in his preface, that númerous as are the books, both in this and in other countries, which have been published upon the elegance of Latin style, he knows not of any calculated to be put into the hands of youth. “Philologists have displayed much critical knowledge in their learned dissertations on the style and the beauties of the Latin language : but that knowledge, and those researches, were neither intended, nor calculated, to be useful to young beginners.” A pleasant little book (Les delicis de la langue Latine,) was published many years ago, and in imitation of, or rather compiled from it, there appeared one or two in this country by Dr. Burcy and others. But, besides their incorrectness and too great conciseness, their inutility will immediately appear, when it is considered that the examples, being all in Latin, and that not of the putest description, can neither exercise the labour, nor excite the industry, of the scholar.

MEDICINE.

A Practical Treatise on Hæmorrhoids, or Piles, Strictures, and other

important Diseases of the Rectum and Anus; being, with some Additions, a Treatise to which the Jacksonian Prize wus adjudged by the Royal College of Surgeons. By George Calvert, Member of the

College, &c.-pp. 359. Callow and Wilson. The College of Surgeons, by the adjudication of their prize, hare proclaimed Mr. Calvert's essay to be the best of those which were submitted to its scrutiny; and, on a careful perusal of the work, we see nothing to complain of in this decision. It contains a tolerably full and satisfactory account of the various diseases referred to in the title. Those of the rectum particularly noticed are, strictures, ulcerations, and excrescences, within and without the anus; morbid contractions, and prolapsus ani; fistula in ano.

The subject of hæmorrhoids alone occupies a large portion of the work. The author describes their origin, nature, and treatment. The real structure of the hæmorrhoidal tumor is pointed out, in opposition to the fallacious notion so generally entertained, that it consists of varicose enlargements of the veins. Among the authors enumerated who have fallen into this mistake, is Mr. Charles Beit, who describes them as being produced by a distension of the veins of the anus, and of the gut near the extremity. In a short time, the distended veins are enveloped with a fleshy covering. The distension of the vessels causes a thickening of their coats; and, the injury being still continued, there is a deposit of coagulable lymph around them Besides this, there is sometimes an extravasation of blood, which becomes organized. Thus the haemorrhoidal tumor is rendered a firm, fleshy, excrescence, with the extremity of the vein concealed within, which,

from time to time, bursts, and discharges blood. Dr. Baillie and Sir Everard Home express themselves in similar terms. The latter says, “that their contents coagulate and become solid, while their coats increase in thickness, and they resemble pendulous tumors in other situations of the body,"

These opinions respecting the origin and nature of the hæmorrhoidal .tumor are evidently incorrect. That varices do exist, and often to a considerable extent, within the rectum, is an undoubted fact: hence the necessity of correct diagnosis in respect to these maladies. A mistake, in fact, may be attended with serious mischief, or even fatal consequences. The amputation of these tumors might be followed with hæmorrhage not easy to abate. This sometimes spontaneously occurs; and, in some instances, has occasioned the death of the patient. The characteristic marks of varix are tumors of a dark or bluish colour, soft and elastic to the touch, resembling in this respect the ripe grape; and which, when compressed by the finger, become sensibly less; but, when the pressure is removed, return to their former state. The form is very different from the true hæmorrhoid tumor, being broader at the base, rounder, and sometimes distributed in irregular and ill-defined clusters, like similar affections of the venæ saphenæ. No judgment, it is evident, can be formed by the position, since these, as well as the common pile, are usually found at the very extremity of the rectum. But it may be presumed that the tumors are of this nature, several being crowded together in this part; they yield readily to the finger, and may be traced to some extent up the rectum. For the true hæmorrhoid is generally external, and almost invariably quite within the reach of the finger.

The remedies, local and general, employed for the relief of pile, may be found in every compendium of medicine. The only point of importance to be considered, in the treatment by surgical operation, is the comparative merits of extirpation by the knife, scissars, or ligatúre. We coincide with the author in the opinion that the use of the ligature should very rarely be admitted. Much, however, must depend on particular circumstances. In varix, unquestionably, it is the best mode to adopt.

The various species of obstruction in the rectum, stricture, partial obliteration, tubercles, and cancerous affection, are next described. The author remarks, that a considerable obliteration of the cavity may also arise from inflammation or ulceration, and subsequent adhesion of hæmorrhoidal tumors. If this occur when the tumors are only of recent formation, then afterwards collapsory, an irregular projection of the inner membrane remains, similar in appearance to that form of stricture which arises from an infiltration of coagulable lymph within its relaxed folds, when forced down by repeated efforts during a cons stipated state of the bowels, or when the gut has suffered from inflammation; but when the inner surface of the rectum and anus is studded with hæmorrhoidal tumors, which from age have become permanently solid, and that in consequence of inflammation, they afterwards unite together, the disease then resembles the tubercular form. The nature of the case, under such circumstances, may be known by the statement of the patient, which is perhaps strengthened by the appearance of piles about the anus. Very little correct inference, however, can be drawn from the latter medium, since external piles are very common in all cases of contracted rectum. The diagnosis of the carcinomatous form of the disease should be carefully attended to; this affection is necessarily fatal, and likely to be aggravated by the treatment applicable to the other species ; and the practitioner should bear in mind that obstructions to the passage of the fæces may arise from tumors in the vicinity. The case of a patient is related, for whom bougies were employed during twelve months without benefit ; when, at length, it was discovered that the real cause of the symptoms was retroversion of the womb.

The syphilitic origin of morbid contraction of the anus is considered by the author to be questionable. A case is given, which, after having resisted mercurial treatment, became fatal. The same disease, arising from spasm or morbid sensibility of the sphinctor muscles, is particularly adverted to.

In the remaining chapters, prolapsus, fistula,, and ulcers of the rectum, are discussed in succession.

The Lectures of Sir Astley Cooper, Bart.F.R.S.Surgeon to the King,&c.&c. on the

Principles and Practice of Surgery, with additional Notes and Cases. By Frederick Tyrrell, Esq. Surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital, and to the

London Ophthalmic Infirmary.mvol. j. pp. 352. Underwood. We can scarcely imagine'a more useful performance than this, to the medical student, or one more likely to be acceptable to the profession in general. The well-earned reputation of Sir A. C., both as a tutor, and a practical surgeon, stamps a value upon whatever may fall from his lips in connection with chirurgical science. Of the authenticity of the work we have just perused, no doubt can exist. The respectable editor has provided his readers with a letter from Sir Astley, acknowledging that he had read the manuscript, and admitting that it contains a faithful account of the principles of surgery which, during forty years, he has been “endeavouring to learn, and of the practice which, for thirty-two years," he has been in the habit of communicating to others.

The subjects of this volume are the following twelve ; each of which is discussed in a separate lecture:- Irritation-Inflammation—Treatment of Inflammation-Adhesive Inflammation --Suppuration-Ulceration-Granulation-Ulcers – Gangrene--Injuries of the HeadCompression of the Brain ; the causes which give rise to it; its symptoms; and the treatment which those symptoms require.-Lastly, Wounds of the Brain. · The style of the Lectures is familiar, and well calculated to fix the attention of the student: they are judiciously interspersed with numerous narratives of such cases as are calculated to justify the opi. nions and sanction the practice of the teacher.

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NOVELS.

Theresa Marchmont ; or, the Maid of Honour. A Tale. By Mrs.

Charles Gore.-1 vol. 12mo. pp. 120. Andrews. Has the success of Ourika induced the author of Theresa Marchmont to put forth this Novelette of the same diminutive size? Be that as it may, the public are indebted to Mrs. Gore for a tale, if not so original, yet certainly as pathetic, as interesting, and as unaffectedly simple, as that of the Duchess of Duras, or the Duchess de Broglio; for Ourika has been attributed to both.

Theresa was the orphan daughter of an officer, who fell at the battle of Worcester, fighting for the cause of the Stuarts. After the Restoration, the beautiful-Miss Marchmont was appointed one of the maids of honour to the young Princess of Portugal, who has become Queen of England by her marriage with Charles the Second. To the court of this accomplished, but profligate monarch, the motto, from La Bruyere, in the title-page of this little work, is strictly applicable: La Cour est comme un édifice bâti de Marbre ; je veux dire, qu'elle est composée d'hommes fort durs, mais fort polis. Theresa and Lord Hugh Percy were accidentally introduced to each other; and the fondest and tenderest attachment ensued. “With the buoyant incautiousness of youth,” says Mrs. Gore, “they have plighted their faith before it occurred to either, that her want of birth and fortune would render her unacceptable to his parents. Lord Percy is compelled to sail with the fleet, and the two lovers thus separated for a time, are alone consoled by the hope of future happiness in the consummation of their mutual vows.

In the mean time, the king, who should have been the protector of the orphan of his friend, whom he had seen fall in battle by his side, proved himself to be one of those men of marble, who are

tres poli, mais fort dur.” He persecuted the unfortunate beauty with his licentious addresses, until she trembled with apprehension at the danger in which she was placed, between the profligate principles of the king and the artifices of his unprincipled aid-des-amours, the Duke of Buckingham. At this juncture, Lord Greville arrived at court, and was so completely captivated.“ by the surpassing loveliness” of Theresa Marchmont, that Charles soon perceived the state of bondage to which the charms of the lovely maid-of-honour had subdued his friend.. Whatever were the motives which prompted him, the king exerted his influence and authority in behalf of Lord Greville, and obtained the queen's permission for his introduction to her protegée. The situation of Theresa was now one of the most embarrassing imaginable; and the talents displayed by the author in the management of this part of so brief a narrative is peculiarly striking. Theresa's hand was disposed of to Greville, in the splendid presence of the whole court, but her heart was devotedly Lord Percy's. With mild resignation to her destiny, Lady Greville endeavoured to perform the duties of her station. It was comparative happiness to her, to have escaped the snares of the court, and to be permitted to live in dignified retire

ment at their own noble country mansion. Lord Greville was beginaing to look forward, with the happy anxiety of affection, to the events

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