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“ 8th. Their like application to hospitals, houses of equal temperature, for invalids, &c.
9th. On the construction of stoves for plants, forcing-houses, green-houses, conservatories, hot-wells, &c., and of the ventilation, and the proportions of steam-pipes, and the heat requisite for each.
“ 10th, On the construction of grates and open fire-places, their best proportions, and the means of ventilating rooms warmed by them.
“ 11th. On the drying of linen and manufactured goods by steam, the construction of drying-rooms, and their effects; and the constructing of a family drying-closet.
« 12th. The author gives a brief sketch of his own ideas respecting the nature of heat ; the subtle ether of Sir Isaac Newton, filling all space, as an almost inconceivably rare and elastic fluid, under the name of caloric, is here assumed to be the efficient cause of heat and light ; 'a certain degree of intensity of development, being necessary to cause the phenomena of light; and, whatever quantity of fluid be acted upon, if the intensity be less than this degree, it will only cause the phenomena of heat; while great intensity and small quantity affords the phenomena of sight without much heat.””
The velocity of light being about 170,000 miles per second, the modulus of elasticity of caloric will be about twenty-five thousand million of million feet in height; that of atmospheric air, at 62° F., being about 27,800 feet: the former therefore is 870 thousand million times the latter. Again the modulus of the elasticity of water is 22,000 times that of air; and in water, the density of the caloric in the interstices between its particles, is 40 million times lighter than air at 62° F.: it should not excite wonder, therefore, that all attempts at weighing caloric have failed, and that it has, though in strictness such be not the fact, been classed as an imponderable fluid,
Our limits will not admit further notice of this important volume, except to mention, that eight important tables follow, which are for the most part original; and nine plates, which are amply described, on a page opposite to each, containing references back to the body of the work, wherein, also, numerous wood-cuts are interspersed : an excellent index closes this practically useful work, which cannot, we think, fail of experiencing an extensive and rapid sale.
Remarks on what Mr. J. B. Logier calls his New System of Musical
Education ; with a Sequel, written and translated from the German. By A. T. C. Kollman, Organist of his Majesty's German Chapel,
St. James's.-8vo. The “ Remarks" here presented to the British public chiefly consist of extracts from the Musicalische Zeitung, or Musical Gazette of Leipzig. We, however, find in the work some just and sensible observations from the pen of Mr. Kollman himself, which, in concordance with the translated matter, tend to convince us of the correctness of the opinion we long since entertained,- that there was more of pretence and quackery, than of any real advantage, in the system, as it is consequentially styled, of Mr. J. B. Logier. Mr. K., after examining this system of musical instruction, very properly asks, what there is in it to entitle its author to a hundred guineas for a communication of the secret? The importance Mr. Logier gives to his chiroplast, or hand-director, is ably exposed; and the detrimental, or, at least, useless forms and rules, on which his routine of tuition and exercise rest, are fairly animadverted upon. Though we may truly say, that there are no greater friends than ourselves to every species of real improvement, we must, at the same time, declare, that we are far from indiscriminately approving all the countless projects of self-interested projectors; and that, among the many new-fangled and futile schemes for facilitating the acquisition of knowledge and practical excellence, we class those, which have no better foundation than that which has been puffed into notice, under the appellation of the Logierian System; and that we think the public not a little indebted to Mr. Kollman for his acute investigation, and clear exposure of as fallacious and unfounded a project as ever deluded the lovers of novelty. The Amateur's Assistant (Vocal and Instrumental), or Elementary
Elucidations on the Major and Minor of Music. By R. J. Ste
phenson.-25. 6d. Clementi and Co. The purpose of this publication, besides presenting the amateur with exemplifications of the diatonic scales, extends to the classification, on a peculiar plan, of the progressive creation and reduction of the sharps and flats. The relative affinities of the majors and minors, prefaced with explanatory gamuts, are also laid down, and a comparison of all the cliffs, accompanied with examples of transposition, is appended ; the whole forming a compact and complete series of scientific and practical lessons on the elements and principles of harmony.
This work, brought forward in two distinct publications, or compartments, does certainly comprise a variety of information, not only necessary, but indispensable, to the amateur, and the professor, who wishes to become a scientific musician ; and it communicates that information in a very clear and obvious manner. If we recommend this publication to the notice of musical aspirants, it is, of course, more on account of its luminousness and intelligibility, than because it contains any thing new. Indeed, in productions of this kind, all that is left to the diligence and ingenuity of their authors is the manner, rather than the matter,-a plain and perspicuous method of displaying what all masters know, and what sensible students are anxious to learn.
The Zoological Journal. Conducted by T. Bell, F.L.S.; J. G.
Children, F.R. and L.S.; J. D. C. Sowerby, F.L.S.; and G. B.
Sowerby, F.L.S.-Five coloured Plates. 8vo. pp. 136. 10s. Phillips. We are happy to find a journal devoted to this science, as there has been no regular channel for it before in Great Britain ; but the facts that have been observed, have either been scattered in the other scien.. tific journals, or lost entirely, except those few which have been printed in the most expensive style by the societies; but we regret that this journal, on account, we suppose, of the beautifully coloured plates, is obliged to be published at a price so high, in respect to its apparent size.
Amongst the principal papers are,-first, one from Dr. Leach, a monograph of the cebrionedæ, a family of pentanerous insects which he divides into seven genera, and describes several species, to which he has added the description of two new species of phergodes. Second, four papers from Mr. John Edward Gray ; first, on the situation and rank of sponges in the scale of nature, and on their internal
structure, in which the author gives an account of the various opinions that naturalists have entertained of the nature of this curious substance; and states, that he believes it to form a class between the vegetable and mineral kingdom.--Secondly, a menograph of balea, a genus of land shells, of which he has described three species.-Thirdly, a menograph of Helicina, a genus of terrestrial shells, near Cyclostoma; in which he has described sixteen species, twelve of which are new; and, fourthly, the commencement of a menograph of the family of Cypræadæa. These papers are preceded by a history of the species, and are altogether in a style superior to any thing of the sort that we have hitherto observed in zoology.—Thirdly, some papers by Mr. Bell. 1. A description of a new species of emarginula, which he calls E. rosea, but which is certainly only a variety of the common one. 2. An Abstract of a Memoir on a new Genus of the Order Rodorentia, named Capromys, by M. G. A. Desmaret, which the author has lately observed to have been nearly simultaneously described by Say, under the name of Isodor. 3. An Abstract of a Memoir on the Physiology of the Linx Pomateo, by M. B. Gaspard, with notes by the translator.Fourthly, three papers, by M. G. B. Sowerby. 1. A description of a new species of Iridina, from the Nile, with a beautiful lithographic plate. 2. Some remarks on the Lanarkian Naiades, in which the author wishes to unite them into one genus; we suppose he means, family, or else he must use the words synonymously; for these genera have no more right to be formed into one than
other genera of a natural family, which are all connected together by strong analogies. 3. A description, accompanied with figures, of several Helices, discovered by T. E. Borodich, at Porto Santo, which are here described as new, but of which, we believe, several have been noticed by Ferussa; and 4. A description, accompanied by figures, of several new species of shells, from the Brazils, all belonging to the family Helicidæ. And, fifthly, A Translation, by Mr. J. G. Children, of a Memoir on the Chemical Composition of the Corneus Parts of Insects, by M. Augustus Odier, with some additional Remarks and Experiments, by the translator. In this paper, the original author wished to establish, that the substance was very analogous to this woody part of plants, which Mr. Children has most perfectly controverted. And, lastly, the beginning of a metaphysical paper, by Mr. John Oliver French, called An Inquiry respecting the true Nature of Instinct; on which, as usual, to the class of philosophers, he draws conclusions directly contrary to truth, from only taking into view a few insulated facts, instead of the connected view of the whole series of animated beings.
British Entomology; or, Illustrations and Descriptions of the Genera
of Insects, found in Great Britain and Ireland; containing coloured Figures, from Nature, of the most rare and beautiful Species, and of the Plants upon which they are found. By John Curtis, F.L. Š.
- Monthly, 4 Plates each. 8vo. 3s. 6d. plain, 4s. 6d. col. Sherwood and Co. This work exhibits the most decided proof of the superiority of British talent, as far as regards the engraving and colouring of the entomological part of the work; for we certainly never observed such Crit. Gaz. Vol. 1. No, 1.
beautiful engraving, except some insects from the graver of the same artist, in the Linnæan Transactions. They have not, at the first sight, the showiness of the French engravings; but they exhibit the microscopic sculpture of the insect. We are sorry that we cannot say the same for the plants; they are usually the most common species ; nor are the specimens, from whence they are taken, sufficient for botanical recognition. As to the literary part of the work, it is very creditable to the talent of the author; generally consisting of a translation from the work of Latrielle, with additions from actual inspection of the parts themselves, which are accurately figured in outline by the base of each plate. Lastly, we should recommend, if Mr. C. continues the plants, that he should also give something more respecting them than their name; but we certainly should recommend their being left out, and their place occupied by the figure of a second species of the genus. Flora Edinensis, or a Description of Plants growing near Edinburgh,
arranged according to the Linnean System; with a concise Introduction to the Natural Orders of the Class Cryptogamia : and illustrated with Plates. By Robert Kaye Greville, F.R.s. and F.A.S.E. &c. 8vo. pp
478, This is the age of Floras; but Mr. Greville remarks, that their use has been universally acknowledged ; and as every body who has collected a few plants considers himself capable of publishing one, we join with him in his surprise, that no attempt has before been made to give a list with scenical descriptions of the plants growing round the modern Athens, where he observes, the “study of Botany holds even a legal rank;" but where he might, with great justness, have added, that, till lately, the study was comparatively neglected; for, we believe we are perfectly correct in stating, that one completely original work has not yet issued from the press.
The "Introduction to the class Cryptogamia," which precedes this work, is little more than an abridgment of the first volume of Withering, for the purpose of explaining the four well-drawn plates which illustrate this volume. But we are astonished to find in a Linnæan Flora, the class cryptogamia divided into what the author considers “natural” orders: we would ask why, in a work where the phænogamous plants, which are the most easy of discovery, are arranged in an artificial manner: are the cryptogamous, which every one considers às more difficult, ever arranged in the Jussieu manner? Is not this a proof of the superiority of the natural arrangements ? To avoid this inconsistency, Stokes, in his excellent Botanical Materia Medica, divided them like the other classes; but nobody has followed him in this mode of rendering the Linnæan arrangement consistent throughout the whole system
The work commences with a synopsis of the genera, which amount to 521; and then follows the specific characters, with a reference, in a parenthesis, to the natural orders of Hooker; a few references to authors, and some clear and short descriptions. But we give the author's own language :
"9. URTICA.-(Nat. ord. Urticcæ, Hook. Scot. 2. p. 202.) 1. U. urens, leaves opposite, elliptical about 5, rilled; cluster of flowers nearly simple. Lightf. p. 578. Smith, H. Brit. p. 1015. Hook. H. Scot, p. 271. E. B. p. 1236.
" Habit. Road sides and waste places, very common, July and September.
“Small nettle. Stem 12-18 inches high. Leaves bright green; plentifully armed with offending bristles. Stipules minute and reflexed. Clusters of flowers, scarcely larger than the petioles.”
Most of these characters and descriptions appear liké compilation from other authors: but it is not here that we can expect much that
The class cryptogamia, which we are given to understand is the forte of the author, is divided into fifteen orders ; three of which have the semblance of novelty, because they are designated by new names. In this class we also observe several new genera, which, considering the former remarks of the author, we should never have supposed that he would have been guilty of introducing: and he has also changed the names of several others, as Ellisius, of Gray's natural arrangement into Asperocaulon, on account of its similarity to the Ellisia of Linnæus, (see page 307,) Polysopheniu for Hutchensia, and several others. But he has not been more fortunate himself; for he has forgotten the genus Tistularia of Linnæus (Sys. Nat. p. 424.), when he established his, (page 300,) and changed the excellent name already established by Lyngbye, and gave it to another genus, instead of the old name, Chorda, of Stackhouse. These are practices which call for reformation, since there are enough names to remember, without having three or four to each individual plant: and, indeed, the author has not paid sufficient attention to nomenclature, especially in the names of the families of the class: thus, for Helvelladea, we have Helvelloidea ; for Fucidea, Fucoidee, in neglect of De Candolle's remarks, that, in these kind of names, which signify likeness, the original must be excluded; as fucus cannot be included in fucoideæ, or plants similar to fucus. The fuci and musci of this class appear to be the only ones to which the author has paid any particular attention; but even here there are bút a few species not described in the general British Floraş.
Upon the whole, we consider that this work will be, in some measure, useful to the Edinburgh pupils; but even there, it must be superseded by Hooker's hasty Flora; in which the student has the advantage of adopting either the artificial or natural arrangement, at his own pleasure, or may use both. We are sorry to observe some little appearance of illiberality in respect to the works from whence the synonymes are taken, particularly towards the end of the book.
The English Flora.-By Sir James Edward Smith. Vol. 1 and 2.
8vo. pages 370 and 470. £1. 4s. Longman and Co. The parts of this work in which the author appears to pride himself most, are, Ist, the Gramineæ, in which he has really done little or nothing, and has not once quoted Beauvois, to whom, in fact, we owe nearly all that has been done in this order. 2dly, the umbelliferæ, of which says he, “considerable indulgence may be requisite, as my performance is almost entirely novel!”. It is astonishing that the
candid” president should tell this, even to a purely English botanist, for his arrangement is exactly that used by Ray, Method. Emend. pp. 49-55, and by Tournefort, vol. 1, p. 304. He criticises the labours of Sprengler and Hoffman, and yet never makes a single reference to their works.