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the offered instruction. Thus, constant employment was provided"; the men were rendered happy, and, of course, their health promoted. Some material alterations were made in the interior arrangements, which experience suggested as necessary to the accommodation, health, and comfort, of the officers and men. One of the principal of these consisted in applying a thick close lining of cork all round the ships' sides; and on the under part of the upper decks, fore and aft: shutters and plugs of the same material were fitted to every window, skylight, and illuminator, so as to completely surround the inhabited parts of the ships. While care was taken to prevent, during the winter months, the rapid escape of the warm internal air, recourse was had to the most effectual means of producing and diffusing it through the ships. With this view, an apparatus was fixed on the orlop deck of each vessel, between the sail-room and the main-hatchway, on a plan proposed and executed by Mr. Sylvester, for effecting so needful a purpose. In the victualling of the ships, several alterations were made, which the experience of the last voyage had suggested. The principal object being to stow a considerably larger supply than before of the meat preserved in cases by Messrs. Gamble and Co., the quantity now furnished amounted to two pounds per week each man, together with a quart of vegetable or concentrated meat soups, for a period of three years. For the same reason, the spirits were supplied at thirty-five per cent, above proof, to be reduced, when issued, by means of an hydrometer, to the strength of that usually furnished to the navy; by which expedient the stowage was economized, in the proportion of an increase of forty gallons on every hundred. For half of the proposed supply of kiln-dried biscuit, flour of the best quality was substituted, to be baked into bread during the winters. In addition to lemon and sugar, which form a part of the ordinary diet in his majesty's navy, a number of other valuable anti-scorbutics were liberally supplied. These arrangements, together with the judicious care of Captain Parry and his officers, were so successful in preserving the health of the men, that after being locked up two whole winters, in the frozen seas of the polar regions, the expedition returned, with the loss of only five men out of 118; a degree of mortality under two per cent. for each of the three years it was absent; and which could not have been expected to be less in the most favourable situation in our own island.

On the second of July, 1822, the vessels got free from the ice, and, renewing their researches, proceeded northward, along a peninsula, denominated Melville Peninsula, to a large opening, in about latitude seventy degrees north, which is called the Strait of the Fury and Hecla. This appeared promising at first; but here the sea was so encumbered with massy ice, that it was conjectured to be perpetual ; and the directions of the currents and winds encouraged no hope of its ever being clear. The vessels were, therefore, laid up for the winter; and the time was spent in the same manner as in the preceding season. As soon as the sea became again navigable, in 1823, the officers wisely determining not to expose the men to the rigours of a third winter, returned to England, There are numerous charts attached to this

volume, most of which, however useful they may prove to the admiralty, in case of any future expedition to the same part of the coast, can be of no possible use to the general reader,

It was during the first winter, that the intercourse with the Esquimaux commenced, and it proved a source of much gratification. Most of the plates which embellish and illustrate this publication, exhibit the grotesque figures of this people in their ample and manifold dresses of the skins of animals. Though living in so rigorous a clime, they always appeared very comfortable in their clothing, and displayed a cheerfulness of temper, that evinced the happiness of their condition. The necessity of constant exertion, and the exercise of ingenuity, to procure the means of subsistence, necessarily sharpen the intellect; and these people are, accordingly, described as quick and intelligent. They were readily taught to delineate charts of the coast and neighbouring country, which, as far as explored, proved to be exceedingly accurate; and such confidence did Captain Parry place in the information they gave him, that had he been able to get round Melville Peninsula, he would have proceeded straight onwards, instead of exploring close to the shore every inlet, as the letter of his instructions directed. Polygamy is practised, and the morals of the women are very relaxed. The winter-houses of these people are very curious; a whole village may be constructed in a few hours.

A single glance at the chart will better exhibit the portion of the coast which was explored, than any verbal description. Attention was paid to such scientific observations as could rectify or extend meteorological, astronomical, and physical science. Additions were made to the specimens of animals, vegetables, and minerals. In regard to the main object of the expedition, better hopes than ever are entertained of ultimate success; and the next attempt is to be made in the Regent's Inlet. The enterprise of Captain Franklin and his brave companions has considerably increased our knowledge of the northern coast, and the nature of the Polar sea; and, as new expeditions by sea and land are in contemplation, we may still indulge the pleasing hope, that the glory of accomplishing this great enterprise is reserved for our country.

Extracts from a Journal written on the Coast of Chili, Peru, and

Mexico, in the Yeurs 1820, 1821, and 1822. By Captain Basil Hall, Royal Navy, Author of a Voyage to Loo-Choo.--2 vol. 8vo. pp. 335-378,

ii. ls. Hurst and Co. This intelligent navigator, already favorably known to the public, was sent out to the Pacific, to protect the British interest in that quarter of the globe. In the course of three years, he was constantly going from one port to another; and the present work will prove highly gratifying to all parties, who, from curiosity, commercial connexions, or love of the improvement of the condition of mankind, take an interest in those regions now in so important a crisis of their moral and political

We have in these volumes ample details of the proceedings of the patriots in the different countries; and the names of O'Higgins, S. Martin, Bolivar, and Iturbide, are as common as household words.

Crit. Gaz. No. 1. Vol. 1.

career.

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Above all, as a Briton and a seaman, Captain Hall, seems to delight in narrating the gallant exploits of our heroic countryman, Lord Cochrane, who has contributed so much to destroy the power of Spanish despotism over those four regions of the earth!

Valuable information is given respecting the different political parties; and we have much pleasure in finding that Captain Hall is a friend of moderate, enlightened, and liberal institutions. Times of revolution are necessarily times of individual suffering ; but of the ultimate good effect of the late changes, no doubt can be entertained.

It has often,” says our author, “been imagined, in other countries, that many of the South Americans were indifferent to the independence of their country ; and that a great European force, by encouraging and protecting the expression of contrary opinions, might, ere long, succeed in re-establishing the ancient authority. This, I am thoroughly convinced, is a mistake; and he that would reason by analogy from the fate of Spain to that of South America, if exposed to the same trial, would confound two things essentially dissimilar ; and if he were to suppose, that the cry of Viva la Independencia,' on the one, and Viva la Constitucion,' on the other, were indicative of an equal degree of sincerity, and of right apprehension of the subject, he would be in an egregious error ; for there is between the two cases this important distinction :the greater number of those who called for the constitution knew very imperfectly for what they were asking; whereas every individual in the new states, however ignorant of the nature and extent of civil liberty, or however indifferent about other political matters, strongly possessed the same clear, consistent, and steady conception of what independence really is, and well knows its important practical consequences. It is because these sentiments are universal, and, every hour, receive more and more strength and confirmation, that I venture to speak so decidedly of the utter impossibility of again reducing to political and moral thraldom so vast a population, every member of which, at length, is fully awakened to a sense of his own interest and honour.”

Occasionally some information is given on other subjects. But we can only notice the parallel roads in a valley twenty-five miles from Coquimbo, which throw some interesting light on the much-controverted topic of the parallel roads of Glenroy, in Scotland, by many supposed to be the result of geological changes; but, by the neighbouring Highlanders, zealously maintained to have been fornied by their ancient kings, for the convenience of the chace. The roads of Coquimbo

“Are so disposed as to present exact counterparts of each other, at the same level on opposite sides of the valley. They are formed entirely of loose materials, principally consisting of water-worn rounded stones, from the size of a nut to that of a man's head. Each of these roads, or levels, resembles a shingle beach ; and there is every indication that the stones have been gradually deposited at the margin of a lake which has filled the valley up to those levels. These gigantic roads, in some places, are half a mile broad; but their general width is from 20 to 50 yards. There are three distinctly characterized sets ; and a lower one, which is distinct when approached, but, when viewed from a distance, is evidently of the same character with the others. The upper road probably lies three or four hundred feet above the level of the sea, and 250 from the bottom of the valley ; the next, beneath it, is twenty yards lower; and the third, about ten lower than the second. When the eye is brought into the plane of one of these roads, it invariably appears, that the same plane produced, would merge into every portion of the same road; exactly as we should see the margin of a lake, after all' its windings, on a level with the surface, if, while bathing, we were to bring the eye close to the water, and look round.”

This ought to set at rest the question of the formation of the roads of Glenroy; for it will hardly be said, that the roads of Coquimbo were the hunting roads of an Indian king.

The work of Captain Hall has supplied much political and geographical desiderata, with a degree of authenticity not to be questioned, and with a spirit of good intelligence which elevates him to the rank

of a philosophical traveller. These countries are now, for the first time, open to other than Spanish isles; and of his opportunities the captain has fully availed himself. A Tour through Parts of the Netherlands, Holland, Germany,

Switzerland, Savoy, and France, in the Years 1821-2; including a Description of the Rhine in the Middle of Autumn, and the stupendous Scenery of the Alps in the Depth of Winter. By Charles Tennant, Esq. Also containing, in an Appendix, a Fuc-simile of Eight Letters, in the Hand-writing of Napoleon Buonaparte to his Wife,

Josephine.—2 vols. 8vo. pp. 494. il. 5s. Longman and Co. NorwITHSTANDING the numerous tours which, from time to time, have been published, since the continent was laid open to British travellers by the peace, individuals still occasionally present themselves before the public with the result of their observations. Amongst these, is Mr. Tennant, who presents us with his Tour through Parts of the Netherlands, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Savoy, and France, in two volumes, 8vo. In a journey so varied and extensive, we might reasonably expect some important information; but, excepting to the personal friends of the author, who may take an interest in his eating and drinking, walking and riding, these volumes present little more than matter calculated to ensure disappointment. The author, commencing with his voyage in the steam-packet to Margate, informs us of his adventures at that place, and of his talent in protecting himself from an overcharge of half-a-guinea on his voyage to Calais. After dining at Dessin's, he proceeds to Bruges, hurting his wrist in adjusting the horses' harness, by the way; an accident deeply affecting, and which, of course, excited our liveliest grief. From Bruges, he proceeds, by the canal, to Ghent; and by the help of his laquais de place, contrives to visit and survey the splendid churches, the pictures, and the botanic garden; on all of which he liberally expatiates, without, however, shedding a single ray of information by which our knowledge on the subject can, in the least degree, be augmented. He does not even notice the lately-established University, or the celebrated Penitentiary, the Maison de Force, so justly famed as an excellent model for prisons, adapted for the moral reformation of their inmates, In this common-place style, he proceeds through the rest of his narrative; and, at the end of two years, gets back to England, where his reputation as a traveller would certainly have stood somewhat higher, had he prudently abstained from writing this account of his peregrinations; or, having written it, been wise enough to keep it from the press. At the end of the second volume, are several curious and genuine lithographic copies of letters of Napoleon.

A Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage in 1819-20; containing an

Account of the Subjects of Natural History. 4to. Plates, 7s.6d. This work, which has at last, after two years' delay, made its appearance, presents us, First, with a description of the vertebrated animals, consisting of 12 Mammælia ; 32 Birds; and 8 Fishes; Secondly, with the Marine invertebrated animals, consisting of 33 species, by Capt. Edward Sabine. And, Thirdly, with the Land invertebrated animals, consisting of 6 species; of which, the first, Bombyz Sabini, appear to be only the Phælæna of Haworth, Lep. Brit. and the Rev. w. Kirby. And, fourthly, the Shells and Echeni, eight species of which are new, by Mr. John Edward Gray. Fifthly, a paper on the Rock Specimens, by Mr. Kænig; in which he describes a new fossil Zoophytes. And, lastly, an excellent account of the Plants, by Mr. Robert Brown.—The engravings with which this work is illustrated are most beautifully executed ; and we hope that the Natural History part of the last Voyage will be published in the same style, which, from what we have seen, we are afraid will not be the case.

Additions to James Scurry's Narrative, communicated by William

Whiteway, his Companion in Captivity and Escape.--8vo. 5s.6d.

Fisher. To those who feel an interest in oriental affairs (and they are now too closely cemented with our domestic prosperity, not to claim anxious attention, this little supplementary publication will, by no means, prove unwelcome. Proceeding from the close of the late James Scurry's account of the hardships and cruelties he suffered, under Hyder Ali, to whose mercy, and that of Tippoo, he and his companions in misfortune were consigned by Suffrein, who had captured the Indiaman in which they were serving, the present writer adds three chapters of narrative. These, partly devoted to the correction of certain errors in Scurry's detail, and partly to the communication of new facts, throw on the subject some novel and satisfactory light, as well respecting the power and policy of the British government in India, as on the mental and moral state of the native princes, and the misuses to which such of the English as, in time of war, fall into their hands, are too generally subjected. Persons who possess Scurry's Narration, ought not to rest satisfied without the additions and illustrations presented in the present publication,

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POLITICAL ECONOMY AND POLITICS,
Thoughts on Prison Labour. By a Student of the Inner Temple.-

8vo.
pp.

348. 9s. 6d. Rodwell and Martin. When we first perused the records of the Spanish inquisition, little did we expect that a torture, less painful, indeed, in its immediate effects, but as much to be dreaded for its after-consequences as any that is made use of in foreign dungeons of horror, would be introduced into free and happy England. We allude to that vilest of all wheels, the tread-wheel, against which the author of the treatise before us has lifted

up the voice of just rebuke. But it is not the dry invective of the satirist, or the eloquence of the impassioned philanthropist, that will abolish this disgusting punishment : simple details of the sufferings of its victims, many of whom have afterwards been declared innocent of the crimes for which they were confined, and who have been permitted to depart, not as they entered, --sound of body and limb, -but

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