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nificent dimensions, rivalled only by the Caledonian canal. The work was completed by the labour of 250,000 men, put in' requisition from all Egypt ; a month's pay being given in advance. In consequence, our author found the harbour of Alexandria crowded with vessels sent for cargoes of corn. By the interference of the British government, European vessels are now admitted to the safe and commodious western harbour of Alexandria, from which they were formerly excluded. By the same influence, Christians now enjoy the privilege of riding on horseback throughout the land of Egypt. The Pacha has established steam-boats on the Nile,-a grand improvement in navigation, and which cannot but be highly advantageous. He has also introduced the cultivation and manufacture of sugar and cotton. His valour has been distinguished in his wars with the Wahabees, as well as by his recovery of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Under his protecting power, life and property are safe; but he is far from being fully enlightened in matters of political economy; and his personal purchase of corn, and sale of it to the European merchants, is an interference in commerce unbecoming a great ruler, and must necessarily lead to the oppression of his people.
Mr. Wilson seems anxious that this Pacha should become the independent sovereign of Egypt; and that, by the aid of British power, he should establish an hereditary dynasty. This, in some degree, is accomplished ; and, in the present state of the Turkish empire, it seems good policy that a barrier should be erected in Egypt, to prevent the country from falling into the hands of the French or Russians, who might endanger our possessions in India.
The author, in the course of his journey, ever keeps in view the coincidence of the manners of the present orientals, with the accounts we find in the sacred Scriptures. Numerous references are given to texts of Scripture at the foot of the page. We wish he had preferred quoting the words at length, and had occasionally incorporated them with the text, because it would not have interrupted the reading by a searching for the passages referred to.
The journey through Palestine, and the description of the holy places usually visited, are interesting. We, however, consider it not a little remarkable, that the author should take no notice of the holy sepulchre until after his return from a long journey to the Dead Sea. The Governor of Samaria behaved with great insolence; to check which in future, our author made a journey to Damascus, to complain to the Pacha. His complaint was immediately attended to, and a Tartar sent off in consequence; but of the actual result we are not informed. Of the Turks in general he entertains a decided abhorrence. cordially join with him in his sympathy for the Greeks; and lay down his book with feelings of respect for the honest piety and zeal of its author.
Scenes and Impressions in Egypt and in Italy. By the Author of
“ Sketches of India, and Recollections of the Peninsula."-8vo. pp.
452. 12s. Longman and Co. This is the work of a master hand; the author leaves Madras, in an Arab vessel, for Arabia, along the coast of which he proceeds, land
ing at various towns, and then crosses to Djidda, on the Egyptian side of the Red Sea. He thence traverses the desert to Egypt, visits the ruins of Thebes, Dendera, the Pyramids, Grand Caur, and Alexandria. From that town he proceeds to Candia, thence to Malta; from Malta he goes to Syracuse; makes the tour of Sicily; sails from Messina to Naples; and proceeds to Rome, Florence, Venice, Milan, and thence to England. The scenes and impressions are those of a complete moving panorama; the reader fancies himself in the place of the author, and seems to see every thing pass before him. The feelings occasionally expressed, indicate the true English character, -the friend of religion, and of human liberty. The latter portion of the book is, perhaps, tess interesting, from our being so much more familiar with the objects described, than with those of the earlier part of the work; where all is so eligible, it is difficult to select; but the following extract will exhibit the manner of the anthor:
" It was to the rude music of the small eastern drum, the noisy cymba!, and the lively tamborine, that with the cry and song of joy, and with many å pause for clapping of the hands, and beating of the feet, the crew of our Arab vessel hoisted her one vast sail, which a gentle breeze from the land, after some heavy flappings of the canvass, at length filled, and slowly and steadily wafted us from the palmy shores of India.' I had prepared for my return from the east, with all the hurry of sincere delight; yet I did not look back upon the receding land without some emotion of regret. There is much, very much, in that interesting country, to stir the thoughts and occupy the mind; especially on a first arrival, and for two or three years afterwards. While the tall palm, and the huge elephant, the spreading banyan, and the naked Indian, the Moslem and the idolater, the festival, the procession, and the dance, are new and unfamiliar things, it is well : but when the eye has seen and the ear heard enough, the enervating climate is felt in all its power; in the dulled fancy and the languid mind, and in the restless longings of the unsatisfied heart. Let us appreciate then, and justly, the sacrifices of those of our fellow-countrymen, who, as soldiers, waste their joylessy ears in that remote land, with the consciousness of being useful indeed, but with little of glory; as civilians, in severe, honourable, and important duties ; as ministers of the gospel, in labours high and holy, always anxious, ever slowly fruitful, and oftentimes altogether disappointing. Some of all these classes, dearly esteemed by me, do, and may long, remain behind ; but the glance of the mind is feet; and often will it be directed from the happier men, to look upon and mingle with them in that striking scenery, and under those brilliant skies which, at morn and eve, and at the noon and night, form the purest solace of the exile in India. Now shape we our course for England. Beloved soil as in site-wholly from all the world disjoyned, so in thy felicities.' Our vessel was rude and ancient in her construction as those which, in former and successive ages, carried the rich freights of India for the Ptolemies, the Roman prefects, and the Arabian caliphs of Egypt. She had, indeed, the wheel and the compass; and our makhoda, (the captain, or • lord of the vessel,') with a beard as black and long, and a solemnity as great, as that of a magician, daily performed the miracle of taking an observation ; but, although these peeping contrivances of the Giaours, have been admitted, yet they build their craft with the same clumsy insecurity, and rig them in the same inconvenient manner, as ever. Our vessel had a lofty broad stern, unmanageable in wearing one enormous sail, on a heavy yard of immense length, which was tardily hoisted by the efforts of some fifty men, on a stout mast placed a little before the midships, and raking forwards ; her head low, without any bowsprit ; and on the poop a mizen uselessly small, with hardly canvass enough for a fishing boat. Our lading was cotton, and the bales were packed upon her decks to a height at once awkward and unsafe. In short she looked like part of a wharf towering with bales, accidentally detached from its quay, and floating loose on the waters. Providence, however, to whom all the Mohammedans trust, though with the perverse indolence of the waggoner in the fable, seems always to have regarded the merchant as the friend of mankind; and thus, from year to year, with favourable and gentle gales, over a serene and pleasant sea, these Årab
traders sail, as did their forefathers, with a peaceful feeling of security, which is seldom disappointed.”
We open the book at page 51, and find there a description of Djidda, and the Turkish garrison in that town:
The aspect of the population of Djidda differs much from that of Mocha: there are more well-dressed people; better shops; instead of thin flat cakes, there are small loaves of good wheaten bread; there are more coffee-houses, and of a better appearance; the buildings, in general, are of coral stone, and some are spacious and handsome. The latticed wood-work of the windows is ornamentally carved, and has a pretty effect. Not a Bedouin was to be seen. What most gratified me was, the sight of the Turkish soldiery: there was a large body in garrison here ; a division of that army which had been sent from Egypt against the Hedjaz, two or three years before. Scattered in groups through the bazaar, and reclining, or squatted, on the benches of the coffee-houses, these men were every where to be seen; some in turbans and vests covered with tarnished embroidery; others only in waistcoats with the small red cap, the red stocking, the bare knee, the white kilt, the loose shirt-sleeve, which, with many, was tueked up to the very shoulder, and showed a nervous hairy arm; all had pistols in their red girdles. Their complexions and features were various; but very many among them had eyes the lightest colour; and the hair on the upper lips of a sunscorched brown, or of a dirty yellow. They have a look at once indolent and ferocious, such as the tiger would display. when basking in the sun; and they are not less savage. The Turkish soldier would sit, smoke, and sleep, for years together; he hates exertion, and scorns discipline ; but, nevertheless, possesses a capability of great efforts; and, when needful, is animated with an undaunted spirit. He will rise from his long rest, to give the 'wild halloo,' and rush fearless to the battle. These troops were originally sent to Egypt from Constantinople, and were alike familiar with the snows of Thrace, and the burning sun of Arabia ; men who, perhaps, had seen the Russian in his furs, or bivouacked near the dark rolling Danube : such are the men who shed the blood of the peaceful Greek families in the gardens of Scio; and such are the men (let it not be forgotten) who, a short century ago, encamped under the walls of Vienna."
These extracts are sufficient to enable our readers to appreciate the merits of the work before us, which, we assure them, is executed throughout with a degree of spirit and talent, that will not fail to reward their attentive perusal of its pages.
Researches in the South of Ireland, illustrative of the Scenery, Archi
tectural Remains, and the Manners and Superstitions of the Peasantry: with an Appendix, containing a Private Narrative of the Rebellion of 1798. By T. Crofton Croker.—4to. pp. 385. £2. 2s. Murray. Not to say that we have perused this volume with considerable gratification, would be an omission chargeable to our ingratitude. Its contents are various, informing, and attractive. To read them, is to become acquainted with a great number of particulars respecting that part of the sister kingdom of which they treat, not only in regard of its general history and scenery, but of the domestic and social character of the different ranks by which it is inhabited and cultivated. Mr. Croker, availing himself of the range such a subject afforded him, has taken an ample and luminous view of his numerous objects, and spread before his readers as rich a collection of materials for contemplation and reflection as, we think, he could well deduce from the ground he took; and has, indeed, done a great deal more than could reasonably have been expected from a mere “arrangement of notes, made during his excursions,” as he informs us in his advertisement.
Though Mr. C. professes to exclude politics altogether, he has, unavoidably perhaps, introduced matters that compel political reflection, and obliges his readers to infer, at least, the severe treatment which the sister island, the almost terra incognita, as he calls her, has uniformly received from England. For instance: the number of struggles Ireland has made to throw off her dependence on this country, her efforts, in every instance from her first subjugation, to shake off her shackles, naturally imply that they gall her: the reader as naturally asks why they gall her? and the answer is necessarily political
Among the various local descriptions, that of Limerick, Charleville, Youghall, Cork, Cork harbour, Cloyne, the river Lee, and Blarney, are so full and satisfactory, that, to read them, is to see those places : and the observations on the history and national character of the Irish, the delineation of the rural scenery, the account of the mode of travelling, the remarks on the belief in fairies and supernatural agency, the narration of the keens and death ceremonies, the reflections on the architecture and ancient buildings, and notices of the mines and minerals, and the state of Irish literature, are so many invitations to read the volume, and the expectations they create do not lead to disappointment. The literary statements and observations are correct and judicious. After noticing that “the literary superiority of Ireland over the rest of Europe, in remote ages, has been a subject of national exultation; that Armagh had once an establishment for seven thousand pupils; that Greek princes have been educated at the University of Lismore; and that to this day the cow-herds and mountaineers pretend to the knowledge, and do really know something, of Latin! Mr. Croker describes the character, and part of the occupation, of a country schoolmaster; which is one of many singular and highly entertaining pictures, that, while they variegate and enrich the volume, strongly excite the reader's attention, and cast a light upon the general narrative, that shows things not only in their true, but most vivid, colours. On this comprehensiveness and lucidity, we the more willingly bestow our eulogium; because we think, the more the people of this country are made acquainted with the character and concerns of their Irish fellowcitizens, the greater will be the chance of that justice being done to the latter to which they are so indisputably entitled. For this reason, we were glad to find in the Appendix to this publication a tolerably full and perspicuous account of the late insurrectional proceedings at Naas and its vicinity. The statement transmitted to the author, in an epistolary communication from a lady who signs herself “ Jane Adams,” comprises a circumstantial detail, laying open scenes and transactions which, while they evince the existing turn and temper of the Irish peasantry, very clearly explain the cause of the feelings out of which the lamentable outrages arose, and render equally obvious, except to those who will not see, the means, and only means, by which those feelings may be allayed, and the ill-will of the aggrieved party be converted into love, loyalty, and gratitude.
Of Mr. Croker's descriptive powers, his accounts of the many beautiful landscapes and seats which struck him in his peregrinations,
afford sufficient proof; and, further, to render his accuracy more accurate, and his clearness more clear, he has embellished and eluci. dated his work with no fewer than sixteen drawings, made from nature, on stone, by Nicholson. Speaking from our partial recollections of some of the places and objects represented, we venture to say, that they are very faithful; and the soft and delicate, yet lively and defined, style in which they are executed, are creditable to the artist's taste and skill.
Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Pas
suge, from the Atlantic to the Pacific; performed in the Years 1821-22-23, in his Majesty's Ships Fury and Hecla, under the Orders of Captain William Edward Parry, R.N. F. R. S. and Commander of the Expedition. Illustrated by numerous Plates. Published by the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Ad
miralty.—4to. pp. 572. 41. 14s. 6d. Murray, This second expedition of Captain Parry, after remaining two winters in the icy seas, has not effected even so much as was achieved in the first expedition, which was shut up only one winter in those dreary regions. No blame, however, can, on that account, be imputed to Captain Parry, or to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, under whose instructions he proceeded. The physical obstructions were insurmountable; and so much, at least, has been gained, that we now have the knowledge, that no opening is to be found in the direction in which a passage has been sought; and that future endeavours will be made only at points which give a greater probability of success. The instructions of Captain Parry were, to enter Hudson's Straits; to proceed westward to Southampton Island, and there, if possible, to fall in with the northern shore of America. This being effected, he was to sail along the coast as far as he could, and endeavour to find the wished-for passage, by Behring's Straits.
The two ships, on reaching Southampton Island, commenced their researches; and numerous inlets were, in vain, examined. The ex-' pedition was not, at any time, able to penetrate beyond eighty-eight degrees west; that is, about three degrees farther than had hitherto been explored in this quarter.
During the long dreary period of winter, till the 2d of July, 1822, every care was taken by the officers to provide for the personal comforts of their crews; and, which was scarcely less important, to procure them amusement and mental employment. Occasional excursions from the ships were made; the crew of the one vessel visited that of the other ; a theatre was established, superior to that of the former expedition; concerts were performed, which, in addition to the pleasurable sensations excited by their harmony and melody, awakened the pleasing recollections of home. . To these entertainments, and the amusement afforded by a magic lantern, which had been presented by a lady, the permanent advantage was added of occupying a part of each day in tuition : schools were established in the vessel ; reading, writing, and accounts were taught; and the sailors thankfully availed themselves of