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of the others, deserving of the character which St. Peter has given of them; namely, that they contain things “hard to be understood;" so that, almost every society of Christians, no matter how far they may have wandered from the path of the Gospel, has found some sort of support in the writings of St. Paul. Hence, a commentary on the Epistles, not composed to favour the opinions of any particular sect, but with a design to enlighten the whole body of Christians, has long been a great desideratum. This desideratum Mr. Slade has supplied : taking the authorized English version of the Epistles as the ground of his commentary, he has selected from the annotators of every age and nation, all that could contribute to elucidate the text, and has enriched the compilation with judicious observations of his own: every objection he has stated with candour and precision, and answered with learning and ability; so that, on the points which have occasioned such division among the followers of Christ, this book cannot, we think, fail to carry conviction to every mind more interested in acquiring a knowledge of truth, than of insuring the triumph of a party.

A familiar and explanatory Address to young, uninformed, and scrupulous Christians, on the Nature and Design of the Lord's Supper; with Directions for profitably reading the Scriptures; a Dissertation on Faith and Works; an Exposition of the Commandments and Lord's Prayer; a Discourse upon Prayer; and an Explanation of Terms used in Doctrinal Writings, which are not generally understood : intended to facilitate the Approach to the Lord's Table, and to impress upon the Mind of Youth the Importance and the Beauty of

Holiness."- 8vo. pp. 199. Letts, Jun. Were the theological works published in each country to be taken as standard proofs of its religion and morality, England would assuredly appear to be the most religious and moral of all the nation's. We have folios, quartos, octavos, duodecimos; essays, discourses, treatises, and tracts, suited to every pocket and every comprehension ; while works are distributed, gratis, to all who are unable, or unwilling, to purchase. It would be well if some of the societies whose sole employment is to provide spiritual food for the community, would take the very excellent little work here announced, under their special protection. We have seldom, if ever, seen so much and such valuable matter comprised in so small a compass; and our readers will join in this opinion, when we assure them, that the prospect held out in the title is fully realized. Admirably calculated as this publication is, to convey a just idea of our most important duties, the author informs us, that he was induced “ to publish it, from iong and painful observation of the repulsive gloom which is too frequently attached to the (naturally joyful) character of the Christian religion, by superstition, and the appalling familiarity towards the Deity by which it is disgraced through enthusiasm; whereby the weak and timorous are often deterred from their duty, while the sanguine and presuming are induced to trifle with it: extremes equally destructive.” With the following extract, so peculiarly well suited to the present state of religious feel

Crit. Gaz. Vol. 1. No. 2,

T

ing in this country, we shall conclude our notice of a work which we cannot recommend too strongly to the notice of the public :

People of warm temperaments are more enthusiastic than those of an opposite complexion ; but such physical effects are no certain criterions of the heart : enthusiasm is no more a proof of insincerity, than a phlegmatic manner is of insincerity; and religious fervor is no farther pleasing to the Deity, than as it arises from sincerity, with which consideration is more accordant than impetuosity.”

A Sermon, in which is attempted to be shewn how far the Use of Music

is allowable or serviceable in Religious Exercises ; preached in the Parish Church of St. Andrew, Droitwich, on Sunday, March 21, 1824, in Aid of a Contribution for the Benefit of the Organist. By the Rev. J. Topham, M.A. F.S.L. Head-master of the Grammar

School of King Edward VI. Bromsgrove.—8vo. pp. 18. Whittaker. Of this elegant and pleasing, yet, at the same time, instructive, Dis.course, the following extracts will give a better idea than we could otherwise convey :

“Whatever raises the thoughts of man to a more sublime conception of his beingwhatever elevates his affections, mollifies his temper, and mellows his feelings,-whatever allures his thoughts from this world, and its affections and lusts, - whatever so calms the troubled stream of life, and induces a kindred calmness to breathe through the veins of man, and, for a time, lulls every unkind and sinful emotion into repose, whatever has this power, must be congenial to the spirit of religion. And that the melody of music, professes this enchanting charm, who that has a heart to feel, or an ear to hear, can deny? For, when its character is in unison' with the sentiments of the subject to which it'is wedded, it assumes a dominion over the passions which the most uncultivated have acknowledged; and which the refined and polite, in all ages, have willingly and advantageously received."

Music, as the handmaid of religion, was not introduced by the law, nor abolished with it; but it was used as such by the Jews and the Apostles, and afterwards by the early Christians. It is recommended by St. James; it is approved of by St. Paul; it is alluded to by St. John, as the employment of the angels in Heaven.”

From all which Mr. Topham concludes, the propriety, as well as usefulness, of employing music in the service of our Church; and, occasionally adopting the language of Bishop Horner, points out, with equal force, felicity, and truth, the incomparable superiority for that purpose of the Psalms of David to all modern devotional poetry.

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Five Letters, addressed to the Rev. G. Wilkins, D.D. Vicar of St.

Mary's, Nottingham ; containing Strictures on some Parts of the first Volume ofBody and Soul.To which is added, a sixth Letter, in reply to the Chapter entitled Evangelism,in the second Volume of the same Work. By the Rev. J. H. Browne, A.M. Archdeacon of Ely, Rector of Cotgrave, &c.--Third Edition. 8vo. pp. 205.

Hatchard. Hæret lateri lethalis arundo. The author of “ Body and Soul,” in his light popular volumes, pointed out very successfully the morbid parts of the proudly religious system now too prevalent. The writer of these five letters thinks, with becoming humility, that he is the proper person to animadvert upon the former work; vide Let. 1 : having

a call,” we suppose, to undertake the holy task. As disdaining all “trivial, verbal, criticism,” he is under the disagreeable necessity of pointing out even the minutest flaws in “Body and Soul,” in order

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to vindicate his claim to critical acumen; and, whilst he condemns the use of “vituperative epithets,” yet truth requires that, throughout his book, charges of “ignorance” and “error,” “shallowness of reasoning," and "inaccuracy of statement,” &c. &c. &c. has been scattered with lavish profusion. Dr. Wilkins recommends, even to those engaged in the sacred ministry, the moderate enjoyment of whatsoever can cheer man in his progress along the rugged and arduous path of life. Archdeacon Brown proscribes every amusement, because it is liable to be abused. Here is an archdeacon, A.M., versus a vicar,

“ Who shall decide when doctors disagree?"

D.D.

Cottage Sermons. By the Rev. Charles Davy, Curate of Hampstead.

-Norris, Berks. These Discourses are entitled to almost unqualified praise. They are the productions of a man who, so far from being ambitious to display a superiority of attainments, carefully abstains from putting out his strength. And this self-restraint is obviously exercised with the laudable view of preserving a simplicity of manner and expression, which may ensure his being perfectly intelligible to the humble and comparatively uneducated individuals for whose benefit these sermons are more particularly designed. The doctrine contained in them is always sound, and the sentiments highly liberal. As a specimen of the author's style, we give a short extract from his discourse on not

falling out by the way.”

“The general causes of strife among brethren are often so trifling and unimportant, that men of true wisdom and of real piety should extremely careful how they condescend to aid, by their countenance and support, a cause that may be most unjust and unjustifiable. But, trifling as appears to be the general cause of strife, yet we enlist our evil and worst passions in it; and, yielding to their influence, we render it, to us, important by our self-conceit, and maintain an unholy contest for superiority when even victory would be disgrace. Some point of truth, but not of the most vital importance, and, where a difference of opinion may be well and charitably allowed, has often called into the field of angry contention all the powers of men, professing godliness,' who ought to have employed their time and talents in defending the walls of Zion from the attacks of the infidel, and from all the cavils and objections of the ungodly.”

ETHICS.

A System of Ethics for the Use of Schools. By T. M. Ready. We feel disposed to award our praise to the writer of this little volume, as well on account of its style and execution, as for its general utility. · Mr. Ready has contrived to compress into a small space a summary of the principal moral duties, which ought to engage the attention of young persons about to enter into life; and, in most instances, his comments and illustrations afford proofs of his correct feelings, and just views, upon the subject on which he treats. He has not aimed at novelty; the metaphysical subtleties, which lead to bewilder, and dazzle to blind," have no place in his work; he has only attempted a simple and faithful exposition of those duties and obligations, on the proper observance of which most depend the happiness atid welfare both of individuals and of society. The chapters on the Improvement of Time, on Cleanliness, Decency, Dress, and the Government of the Temper, are so excellent, that we cannot but recommend them to the careful perúsal of all young people :

“ But further this deponent sayeth not. Of Mr. Ready's volume there are, indeed, portions, against which, after having willingly acknowledged his general merit, we feel compelled to enter a decided protest,--we mean, his chapter on Patriotism. The importance and obligation of this duty, we readily admit; but do not think that the proper method of inculcating an attachment to our own country, is that of representing other nations as contemptible or odious. Still we might make considerable allowances on the score of national feeling, when we find Mr. Ready saying to his juvenile readers,

“ Be assured there is no land under the sun (except England), where so many blessings centre ; where so much moral worth exists; and where so much substantial enjoyment is to be found.”

But what can be urged in defence of such a paragraph as the following ?

Accustom yourselves to think and speak of your monarch with respect; to cherish a warm affection and reverence for all the sacred institutions of your country; and may you thus acquire a deep-rooted veneration for that admirable order of things, which, under a succession of excellent princes, a mild, wise, and happy government, for upwards of a century, has raised Great Britain to her present unparalleled height of excellence and grandeur. Let no base insinuations of the wicked and designing, whose harvest is anarchy, whose desire is the destruction of all that is good and venerable, that they may riot in the spoils, make you think lightly of these things, or wean your attachment from your sovereign, or from those entrusted with the responsible task of carrying on the affairs of the nation, while, with integrity, ability, and firmness, they perform their arduous duty.”

Ohe! jam satis est! This will never do. We, however, are far from wishing to be understood, as condemning Mr. Ready for advocating that side of politics which he has chosen, - Tros Tyriusve nullo discrimine,- but for introducing, in a work like the present, any politics at all. The priest, or the philosopher, who once allows himself to become the organ of party feelings, forfeits all claim to respect; and to seek, under pretence of cultivating the youthful mind, to imbue it with the pernicious prejudices and irascible dispositions, which such sentiments are calculated to inspire, is, in our opinion, to endeavour to subvert the very foundations of pure morality.

Moral Inquiries into the Situation of Man, and of Brutes; with 06

servations on Mr. Martin's Act, on the Vagrant Act, and on the Tread-mill. By Lewis Gompertz, Esq.-1 vol. 8vo. pp. 175.

Westley and Parrish. This publication, the principal and avowed objects of which are to expatiate " on the crime of committing cruelty on brutes, and of sacrificing them to the purposes of man;" and to suggest "improvements in scapers, or substitutes for carriage-wheels;" comprises a considerable variety of topics, into each of which Mr. Gompertz enters with a minuteness and intelligence which announces both his zeal and bis qualification, for the discussion in which he is engaged. As nothing, in our opinion, can be more laudable than the leading

principle of this little work, as we deem the claim of the brute creation to the benevolence and mercy of man, as a claim of nature, whose wisdom has subjected to his dominion the whole lower world, we proceeded to its perusal, with the most favourable anticipation, and were not disappointed. Though, to the honour of at least the civilized portion of our species, Mr. G.'s feelings on the subject, of what is due to the creatures confided to our disposal and governance, are those of every well-educated man, his merit is considerably beyond that of merely echoing the sentiments of others. In the sixteen chapters, into which his book is divided, he has discussed, in a progressive and luminous manner, his main topic, and the points immediately connected with it; and, both in regard to the treatment due from man to man, and from man to brute, has powerfully and judiciously asserted the cause of reason and humanity.

With the observations on the general improvement of society, we are much pleased; and entirely agree with the author's opinion, that cruelty of every description chiefly proceeds from defects in the mode of common education. His exposure of the various ways, and horrid extent, in which barbarity is exercised towards the creatures placed in our power, by the bounty of Providence, especially those provided for human sustenance, is entitled to our commendation, inasmuch as the more they are known, the more abhorrence they will excite, and the greater will be the probability of the cessation of the atrocious practices he describes. The reasons adduced for the superior formation of man, as compared with that of the other mundane creatures, are, we must say, insufficient. That it has pleased the Almighty to furnish this globe with a chain or graduated scale of living being, is made obvious enough by the existing and visible fact; and it is no less clear, that since every system of animate or inanimate matter must contain within itself all the degrees of which it consists, it can no more be complete without its highest than its lowest order of beings. And since the very definition of this superior order is comprised in that of its superior attributes, and these are the attributes of man,-man, by necessity, is that superior being; and to ask, “ why man was made superior to other animals ?” is to ask, why, in a system of rising beings, there should be an upper order,--an order superior to, and endowed with, an ascendancy over the other classes ? The problem to be solved (as it appears to us), is not, why man was made superior to other animals, (which is but absurdly inquiring, why, in a graduated scale of beings, there should be one order above the rest); but why there was obliged to be a graduated scale, instead of one co-equal rank of living existences ? A question needless, at least, because it carries with it its own answer; as does that of why society should consist of gradation of ranks?"

Mr. Gompertz's remarks on Mr. Martin's Act, and the introduction of the Tread-mill, are obviously suggested by motives honourable to his feelings, both as a man and a Christian, and are too rational not to challenge our approbation and applause. With respect to the principle and operation of the first, we have only to say, that, as they can have but one tendency, that of diminishing the number of abominable and disgraceful cruelties, daily practised in every possible

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