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those things which are invariably together, for the properties they exhibit, yet he makes no difficulty in inferring, that the whole causes are supposed to be found from the mere circumstances of their invariable coalescence; insomuch, that no extraneous cause need be sought for. The sum of his argument is, • There is no such thing as cause and effect to be perceived between the objects with which we are acquainted. It is idle to say, we have found a cause; it is still more idle to look for it. Objects are found to be amassed qualities and properties, which have invariably existed together in past time, and, for that reason, will do so in future; but, as for a productive principle, it is unworthy of a philosopher to expect it, or to seek for it, or to need it, in order to account for any appearances. We have objects, variously diversified--this is all, and this is enough!
" It is, hence, (so Mr. Lawrence argues,) absurd to seek a cause for sensation or thought, although no efficient one is pretended to be assigned, in the union of the powers of life with organization. The living nerve is an object having sensation
this is all, and this is enough. Whereas, there must be causes for every thing, and sometimes a vast multitude of objects are wanted, before their mutual bearings and mixtures with each other operate so as to produce any peculiar existence. The highest, and the greatest we know of, is, sensation, and its varieties; and although we know that life is wanted as a cause, without which it cannot exist in this world in the nervous system; yet we have no notion of all the objects that may be necessary to its creation.
“Of all philosophical errors, the substitution of false, partial, or insufficient, causes for the production of an end or object, is the most dangerous, because so liable to escape detection ; and the idleness of the mind which prosecutes with reluctance difficult researches into remote proofs, its impatience which eagerly grasps at the readiest solution of a doubt, and its pride, so prone to triumph indiscreetly at the glimpse of a discovery supposed to be complete, for ever occasion it to be guilty of that mode of sophistry scholastically termed, Non causa-pro causa : and this is truly the amount of Mr. Lawrence's error; for, with all his denial that there are such things as cause and necessary connexion, he virtually assigns a 'false cause' for sensation, because he asserts that all is found that is necessary in order to it.”
We agree with our author entirely; there are certain plain propositions which are uniformly and universally felt as truths, and which must be admitted as axioms; otherwise all kind of discussion will be useless. Mr. Lawrence, in following David out of his direct road, into the maze of his ingenious refinements, has really lost himself; and, as might be expected, while in the act of denying the necessary consequence of causes, has confounded cause with effect, and effect with cause. Tristram Shandy has, with some pleasantry, compared the body and the soul to a coat and its lining : if you rumple the one, you disturb the other.
But Mr. David Hume and his pupils, in confounding will and consciousness, which are not matter, (and which, certainly, are not to be identified with it, any more than the music is to be identified with the violin,) has carried Tr ram Shandy's to an extreme, which he never meditated, that the coat and the lining are the same.
No one can doubt, that the intellectual power and the intellectual function are closely allied; but the closest possible alliance is NOT IDENTITY.
A Practical Treatise on Domestic Poultry, Pheasants, Pigeons, and
Rabbits, with Experiments on the Egyptian Method of Hatching Eggs by Artificial Heat; and on the Management of Swine, Milch Cows, and Bees; with Instructions for the Private Brewery. By
Bonington Mowbray, Esq.--Fifth Edition. Sherwood and Co. It would be rather too much to expect from a reviewer, that he should be so far vere adeptus, in chickenology, as to be able to give a critical and practical analysis of the present work. Luckily, however, for the author and the booksellers, such an analysis is by no means necessary The public have reviewed the book for themselves, by the purchase of four, it is said, very large impressions. And the noted Doctor Kitchiner, in his Cook's Oracle, has given his favourable suffrage, by the number of his references, or quotations. How Mr. Mowbray could find leisure, amid his long continued literary avocations, to attend minutely and practically, as he indubitably has done, to the objects of this publication, surprises us not a little. But that, perhaps, may be said to be explained in his preface; and further in page 351, where, in the language employed by the great Kattafelto, in a trying case, he invokes the assistance of his wife. The new article is on the private Brewery, and contains a number of touching observations on our system of taxation, which we leave our readers to appreciate. In this part, there is obviously an opposition to several of Mr. Cobbett's favourite opinions, though his name is not introduced. The author seems to be a veteran, practical, private brewer. The nature of beer is closely discussed ; and instructions are given for brewing ales, porter, or keeping small-beer, in the smallest, as well as the largest, quantities. We observe several anecdotes; also an improving omission in the title-page, where, previously, we recollect to have seen a quackish puff of “forty years' practice," which, we would hope, was never placed there with the approbation of the author.
NATURAL HISTORY. Contribution to the Natural and Economical History of the Cocoa-nut
Tree. By Henry Marshall.— 8vo. pp. 40. This republication of Mr. Marshall's paper, from the Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, is a plain, simple, narrative of the growth and uses of the cocoa-nut tree, accompanied with remarks on its several component parts, and their respective properties. The plan of the publication is similar to that of the same author's two papers on the Natural History of the Cinnamon Tree, and the Trade in Cinnamon; one of which productions appeared in the Philosophical Transactions for 1817; and the other in Thomson's Annals of Philosophy, vol. xvi. To those who take sufficient interest in subjects of this nature, to place due value on the intelligence their discussion affords, Mr. Marshall's volume will prove so acceptable, that, whatever we think of its style, we can fairly recommend its matter to their attention,
FINE ARTS. Sciography; or Examples of Shadows, with Rules for their Projection,
intended for the use of Architectural Draughtsmen, and other Artists. By Joseph Gwilt, Architect, F.S.A. Author of a Treatise on the Equilibrium of Arches, fc. Second Edition, with considerable Additions and Improvements, and six additional Plates.
-8vo. Priestley and Weale. Mr. Gwilt has rendered the student of architectural drawing, a considerable service by the publication of the present work on shadows. It will, with an attentive study of nature, assist them in a more serupulous accuracy of the delineation of shadows, than is usually attended to. The French possess several works of this nature, founded on the principles of descriptive geometry; and Mr. Peter Nicholson has touched on the subject in his third volume of his 8vo. work on Architecture, which is, we believe, out of print.
Mr. Gwilt's original intention was to have published a mere version of the excellent work of Stanislaus L'Eveillé (Etudes d'Ombres), and had actually translated it, and redrawn all its examples with that view; but considerable reflection, and a more matured view of the subject, led him to conclude, that it would have been too complex to have been generally useful, and he has, therefore, compiled the present useful little work.
The examples are clear, well drawn and engraved, and the illustrations brief and intelligible ; at the same time the mathematical portion of the work is not neglected. One observation in the preface is a perfect aphorism, and should be inscribed in the study of every architectural student,—“He is a sorry architect, who is a bad mathematician."
THEOLOGY. Remarks on Dr. Henderson's Appeal to the Bible Society, on the Subject
of the Turkish Version of the New Testament, printed at Paris, in 1819. To which is added, an Appendix, containing certain Documents on the Character of that Version. By the Rev. S. Lee, A.M. D.D. of the University of Halle, Honorary Member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, F.R.S.L. F. R. A. S. fc. and Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge.-Cambridge. pp. 159-44.
Hatchard and Son. The appeal of Dr. Henderson, to which this hasty, but convincing pamphlet is a Reply, professes, in its title-page, to give a “view of the history" of the Turkish version, “an exposure of its errors, and palpable proofs of the necessity of its suppression.” Considered by itself, Dr. Henderson's production is calculated to operate to the disadvantage of the version in question; but Professor Lee's work has, in a great measure, turned the balance of the controversy; and, though he has not proved that the Turkish version is without a fault, we think he has made it sufficiently clear, that, among modern translations of the Scriptures, it may hold a respectable place; that its errors have been exaggerated; that many faults have been alleged which it does not possess; and that, therefore, though there may
be some occasion for correction in the next edition, and some need of a short table of errata in this, yet the suppression of the version is by no means so palpably necessary as Dr. Henderson would represent; and that, by its non-circulation, to the utmost extent of their means, the society, which originally published the work from a MS. in the University of Leyden, would subject themselves to the charge of wasting their funds, and withholding the Scriptures from that distribution which it is in their power to command. Crit. Gaz. Kol. 1. No.2.
We will not attempt to enter into the details of Dr. Henderson's charges, or Professor Lee's replies; since, for the most part, they turn upon critical minutiæ, not likely to interest the majority of our readers. The accusations are met by the Professor in order, by shewing, either that Dr. Henderson was not sufficiently versed in the Turkish language, to offer accurate criticisms upon subjects involving its grammatical peculiarities ;-or that, where Ali Bey, the translator, is charged with a wrong rendering, he has, in fact, followed only a different reading, such as is found in some MSS., or a different interpretation, such as is preferred by many able commentators ; - or that the terms objected to as too favourable to Mahometan prejudices, are precisely those which, to this day, are employed in religious books, and other versions of the Scriptures, by oriental Christians ;those which Dr. Henderson recommends as preferable, are liable to far stronger objections than any for which he would substitute them. By these, or similar arguments, the appeal is met and answered. In Matthew, v. 6, (“Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness; for they shall be filled,") Dr. Henderson would substitute, in Ali Bey's translation, a word which does not imply righteousness in a religious sense, but is the forensic term for right, or justice. So that, if we adopt the doctor's emendation, we shall have,
6 Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for justice (as executed in the courts of law), for they shall be filled.”
One serious error found its way into the Turkish version; that of the appellation “lamb" instead of “angel," in Rev. xxii. 8.; by which it was made to appear that the lamb delivered divine honours; being by no means the sense of the original passage. But the sheet containing the error has actually been reprinted, so great is the anxiety of the committee to furnish a correct version.
Having incidentally answered some objections which have been urged against the Society's Arabic version, the Professor, in his Appendix, proceeds to lay before his readers various testimonials from learned orientalists, both English and French, on the subject of the Turkish version. These are all decidedly favourable, and would themselves set the question at rest, respecting the merits of a translation which has been warmly assailed, and that in more quarters than
ne; but, as it appears to us, with less temper and deliberation than so serious a subject required.
Reply to the Letters of the Abbé Dubois on the State of Christianity in
India. By the Rev. James Hough, Chaplain to the Honourable East India Company, on the Madras Establishment.-Pp. 322.
Seeley and Son. The contention between the missionaries in India, of three persuasions respectively, has, for the most part, unfortunately shewn, that, though they all profess to be alike ministers of the Gospel, they have no common point of resemblance or union; that a total want-of mutual charity is observable among them. The present work, however, furnishes an honourable exception to this remark: we, therefore, with pleasure, proceed to give a summary of its contents.
“In a work recently published by the Abbé Dubois, late Jesuit missionary in Mysore, entitled Letters on the State of Christianity in India, the author replies in the negative to the following questions of 'Is there a possibility of making real converts to Christianity among the natives in India ? and · Are the means employed for that purpose, and above all
, the translation of the Holy Scriptures into the idioms of the country, likely to conduce to this desirable object ?°»
The Abbé Dubois argues upon the singular depravity of the Hindoos; to which it is replied, "That their state of demoralization is not greater than that of many nations at and subsequent to the time of Jesus Christ;—that, as mercy was shewn to the latter, it may be hoped for the former ;—that the more they stand in need of the blessings of true religion, the more it is incumbent upon Christians to endeavour to establish it
among them ;-that the dereliction of them, upon which the Abbé insists, is not sanctioned by any example of Jesus Christ and his Apostles, and is totally irreconcileable with the predictions of the Prophets in the Old Testament, with the principles of the Gospel, with the dictates of justice, and with the feelings of humanity.” The institution of the Hindoo College at Calcutta, almost entirely founded by the contributions of that class of natives whose appellation it bears, and the formation of the Hindoo Literary Society, whose first meeting was held in February, 1823, are, among many others, adduced as instances of “ the triumphs of the native mind over Brahminical influence;" and Mr. Hough very properly concludes, that the Hindoos may be converted to Christianity, although the means employed by the Abbé and the other Roman Catholic missionaries have totally failed. Of these means, a most revolting picture is drawn from the materials which the Abbé himself supplied. We find the Jesuits adopting the manners and dress of the Brahmins, whose origin and honours are considered as superhuman, and even their mask of caste. ! This mark is worn also by the other castes of Hindoos, and distinguishes the worshippers of their respective gods from each other. The Jesuits, therefore, by adopting this mask, bore the stamp of idolatry on their very front.” Thus strengthening in the minds of the people those feelings which, of all others, they are bound to overcome. cedure being condemned by the Pope, was, for a time, relinquished; and, unlike our Lord and his Apostles, who courted not the powerful sect of Pharisees, the Jesuist's object has again been “not to humble, but to conciliate, the haughty caste" of Brahmins; "and they would allow them, on embracing Christianity, to retain notions directly at variance with the unassuming spirit of the Gospel;” and they have continued to flatter the prejudices of the natives, “incorporating Pagan rites and ceremonies with the simplicity of the Christian mode of worship,” till they seemed rather to be themselves converts to idolatry, than followers of Him whose name they bore.
To such an incredible length, indeed, has this been carried, that Christianity, as taught by the Jesuits, seems merely a substitution of the “ crucifix and the images of the Virgin, &c. for the Lingam, Maha-Deva, &c.” so that, (all question about the corruption of Christianity by the Papists apart,) had the Almighty prospered the labours of the Jesuits in India, He would, contrary to his avowed determination, have given his glory to another, and his praise to graven images. Isaiah, xlii. 8.” The Protestants, on the other hand, have